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Daniel C. Brainard, John Bakker, D. Corey Noyes and Norm Myers

rye ( Secale cereale ) effectively suppressed weeds without suppressing the crop in years where rainfall was adequate but reduced crop yields in low rainfall years attributable in part to competition for soil moisture ( Ateh and Doll, 1996 ; Robinson

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Heidi J. Johnson, Jed B. Colquhoun, Alvin J. Bussan and Carrie A.M. Laboski

mineralization of several GrM crops in combination with soil amendments in a laboratory incubation study. The objectives were to determine PAN from alfalfa, pea, and rye GrM crops alone, two commercially available organic fertilizers, CPM, and the combinations of

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Matthew J. Leavitt, Craig C. Sheaffer, Donald L. Wyse and Deborah L. Allan

-market operation. Appropriate cover crops for northern climates can depend on rotations, machinery, and desired cash crops, but much research has been focused on the use of winter rye ( Secale cereale L.) ( Singer, 2008 ; Snapp et al., 2005 ) and hairy vetch

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Maren J. Mochizuki, Anusuya Rangarajan, Robin R. Bellinder, Harold M. van Es and Thomas Björkman

inadequate kill ( Bottenberg et al., 1997 ). A decomposing cover crop can lead to immobilization of nutrients by soil microbes ( Hoyt, 1999 ). In addition, allelopathic chemicals, from rye ( Secale cereale L.) in particular, may interfere with the growth and

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Aaron Heinrich, Richard Smith and Michael Cahn

, farmers almost exclusively grow cereal rye as a winter cover crop because of the low seed cost and it does not set seed too early in the growth cycle, eliminating the potential for it to become a weed hazard. In this region, a full-season cereal rye cover

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Maurice Ogutu*

Pumpkin is usually grown on bare ground. Weeds are controlled by pre-emergence herbicides and cultivation early in the season before pumpkin vines cover the ground. The pumpkin fruit lie on bare ground and covered with soil. In pick-your-own pumpkin operation it is impossible to walk on muddy fields to pick pumpkin fruits. Experiment was carried out using three treatments (Control-bare ground, Rye only mulch, and rye/hairy vetch mulch) replicated four times in complete randomized block design with plot sizes of 30 ft (9 m) by 30 ft (9 m). In each plot, two pumpkin rows were planted 8 ft (2.4 m) a part and 2 ft (0.6 m) a part within rows. In rye only, and rye/hairy vetch plots, two 2-ft wide strips 8-ft a part were mowed and rototilled in each plot. Cover crop in between the rows were rolled using a multi-culchler roller, and emergence of eastern black night shade (Solanum phytanthum Dun.), red root pig weed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), and common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) on cover crop plots between the rows were evaluated 4-10 weeks after transplanting. The effect of cover mulches on pumpkin fruit number, yield, fruit size, and fruit rots were assessed as well. Emergence of red root pigweed, black nightshade, and common lambsquarters was less than 2, 1, and 1/2 seedlings per 12-ft-2 (1-m-2) area respectively. There was no significant difference in marketable fruit number between control and strip tilled plots. Control plots had higher pumpkin fruit weight than rye/hairy vetch plots, and no significant difference between rye only and rye/hairy vetch plots. Control plots had significantly larger fruits and higher fruit rot incidence than strip tilled plots.

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Ted S. Kornecki, Francisco J. Arriaga and Andrew J. Price

crop in the southern United States is rye ( Secale cereale L.), which can produce 3,000 to 10,000 kg·ha −1 per year ( Bowen et al., 2000 ). Primary benefits of using rye as a cover crop include protection of soil from the impact of rainfall energy

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Lavesta C. Hand, Wheeler G. Foshee III, Tyler A. Monday, Daniel E. Wells and Dennis P. Delaney

and Mohler, 1993 ). Therefore, the cover crops can alter the microenvironment around the seed, enough to reduce or delay the weed emergence ( Teasdale and Mohler, 1993 ). Because of its high biomass production and allelopathic compounds, cereal rye is

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Warren Roberts and Bob Cartwright

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata) was grown for five years with treatments comparing no till and conventional production systems. Each year, raised beds were formed in the fall and selected plots were seeded with rye (Secale cereale). The rye was allowed to grow during the winter, and the following spring it was either mowed, killed with herbicide, or allowed to grow indefinitely. Different seeding rates of rye and different fertilizer rates were used. Some plots were mowed and the residue removed from the plots, while certain plots had no rye planted but received the rye residue that was removed from other plots. Rye was also gathered and pulverized, and the liquid extract removed from this suspension was sprayed onto plots. Cabbage was planted into each plot in the spring. The yield of cabbage grown in various rye-covered plots was compared to the yield from bare soil plots and from plots covered with black plastic mulch. In general, the plots covered with the various rye treatments had less yield than did the bare soil plots. Plots covered with black plastic mulch often had a greater yield than did the other plots.

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Bernard H. Zandstra and Darryl D. Warncke

Carrots (Daucus carota L.) or onions (Allium cepa L.) were interplanted with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) or rye (Secale cereale L.) seeded at 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 bushels/acre (0, 43.5, 87, and 174 liters-ha-i). Barley was killed at heights of 4, 8, 12, or 16 inches (10, 20, 30, or 40 cm), and rye was killed at 4, 6, 7, or 8 inches with a postemergence graminicide. Barley and rye killed at 4 inches did not reduce onion yield. If barley exceeded 8 inches and rye exceeded 7 inches when killed, onion yields were reduced. Carrot yield was reduced only by 2 bushels of barley killed at 16 inches. One bushel of barley per acre killed at 4 inches appeared to be optimal in giving good soil protection and minimal crop competition.