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Richard C. Beeson Jr

and ET A determined by weighing lysimetry for L. japonicum during a year of production from rooted cuttings to market size plants. In 2005, an algorithm derived from the model was used to control irrigation of L. japonicum from rooted cuttings to

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S.C. Myers and A.T. Savelle

`Guardian' peach rootstock has shown improved survivability in areas where root-knot nematode and peach tree short life are a problem. Many peach rootstocks are typically propagated from seed. Availability of seed may vary and the long-term genetic uniformity of rootstock material may be difficult to maintain due to out-crossing during seed production. A reliable, successful vegetative propagation method would potentially increase the rate at which material could be made available and more closely ensure genetic uniformity. Production of liners was compared between rooted cuttings and seed of mature `Guardian', `Lovell', and `Nemaguard' peach trees. Seed were stratified under uniform conditions, planted at initial germination, and seedling emergence recorded 30 days after planting. Terminal softwood and semi-hardwood cutting were treated with KIBA and rooted under intermittent mist in a greenhouse. Rooting percentage was equal to or greater than percent seedling emergence. Optimum results were obtained with semi-hardwood cuttings taken in July and August. Rooted cuttings transplanted to the field produced liners of equal or greater quality than liners produced from seed. Seedlings exhibited variability in growth in the nursery area. Rooted cuttings had fewer lateral branches in the lower 15 cm of rootstock where trees were T-budded with certified, virus-indexed buds of `Cresthaven' peach.

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Christopher J. Currey, Veronica A. Hutchinson and Roberto G. Lopez

seed, rooted cuttings have increased genetic uniformity, no juvenile stage to pass before flowering, shorter production time, and the potential to be produced from sterile or seedless cultivars ( Erwin, 1994 ). The goals of propagators include producing

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A. Talaie and M. Zarrabi

To study the reasons for the losses of rooted semihardwood cuttings of olive propagated under the mist method, a 2-year experiment was carried out at the Horticulture Dept. of Faculty of Agriculture of the Tehran Univ. In this experiment, semihardwood cuttings of olive (Zard cultivar) in four different media—heavy-(Al), semi-heavy(A2), medium (A3), and light (A4), all disinfected with two different concentrations of Captan—were used. Root growth stages with low, medium, and light densities in spring and fall were evaluated. The results indicate that there are the least losses in semi-heavy (A2) and medium (A3) media. This could be the result of a better ventilation conditions in these media, which activates N and Ca and finally accelerates the better growth conditions in all young rooted cuttings. On the other hand, it was clear that inadequate disinfection will result in losses of rooted cuttings, and using Captan at 2 ppm gives the best result. This research indicate that, with the higher growth rate, the first medium will have the fewer losses. The reason is the higher density and more durability and strength of the root, which control the disease-causing factors; so far that these factors do not influence the young roots. Finally, strong and dense roots show less losses. This experiment was designed in a factorial with randomized complete block and the averages were compared in a Duncan test and the results of abnormally distributed characteristics were shown by using logarithmic and sinus method.

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Martin P.N. Gent

Efficacy of paclobutrazol was determined when applied to rooted cuttings before transplant. Cuttings of large-leaf Rhododendron catawbiense Michx. were treated with paclobutrazol applied as a 40-mL drench. In 1998, concentrations of 0, 1, 2, 10, or 20 mg·L-1 were applied to liners before root development was complete in February, or after cuttings were root-bound in May. The same volume of solution was applied to other plants at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, or 20 mg·L-1 in July 1998, after transplant to 1-gal pots. In 1999, a 40-mL drench of paclobutrazol at 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, or 20 mg·L-1 was only applied to liners in April. All cuttings were transplanted to 1-gal pots and set in the field. The elongation of stems was measured after each of three flushes of growth. Plants were far more responsive to paclobutrazol when it was applied before, rather than after transplant. There was a saturating response to paclobutrazol concentration and the half-maximal response occurred at 2 to 4 mg·L-1 (0.08 to 0.16 mg/plant). At low rates, later flushes of growth were affected less than earlier flushes. However if paclobutrazol was applied at 10 or 20 mg·L-1, later flushes of growth were inhibited more completely than early flushes. Flowering was enhanced by paclobutrazol. Paclobutrazol at 2 mg·L-1 applied to rooted cuttings before transplant was sufficient to inhibit growth of rhododendron, but not to the point where later flushes of growth were excessively short. Chemical name used: 2RS,3RS-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-l-yl)-pentan-3-ol (paclobutrazol).

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Christopher J. Currey and Roberto G. Lopez

400 mg·L −1 applied with a hose. Santos et al. (2008) also reported that up to 46.9 L of leachate/m 2 of bench space was leached from the root zone during a typical 4-week production cycle for rooted cuttings. Furthermore, 23%, 34%, and 28% of N, P

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Andrew R. King, Michael A. Arnold, Douglas F. Welsh and W. Todd Watson

and rooted cutting quality do, however, vary among genotypes ( Copes and Randall, 1993 ; King, 2010 ; Pezeshki and DeLaune, 1994 ; St. Hilaire, 2003 ; Zhou, 2005 ). There are many methods for manipulating cuttings to encourage optimal adventitious

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Andrew R. King, Michael A. Arnold, Douglas F. Welsh and W. Todd Watson

current study was to determine the clonal responses to K-IBA across seasonal developmental stages of cuttings and to determine whether rooting and callus percentages and rooted cutting quality (root number, length, and mass) would be sufficient for

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N.R. Bhat, Thomas L. Prince, Harry K. Tayama and Stephen A. Carver

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Yai Ulrich Adegbola, Paul R. Fisher and Alan W. Hodges

shipping rooted cuttings to customers ( Fig. 1 ). These large, multitiered companies require highly efficient processes, trained staff, and lean manufacturing processes to consistently produce high-quality plant products and remain competitive in an