-parasitic nematodes were first reported in Rubus species in North America in the 1930s, when root lesion nematodes were associated with declining red raspberries ( McElroy, 1992 ). Growers have been able to manage plant-parasitic nematodes in raspberry crops by pre
Inga A. Zasada, Thomas W. Walters, and John N. Pinkerton
Inga A. Zasada and Patrick P. Moore
associated with raspberry, Pratylenchus penetrans , the root lesion nematode, is the most economically important ( McElroy, 1991 ). Feeding on roots by Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb) Filipjev and Schuurmans Stekhoven can reduce the capacity of the plant to
T.C. Vrain, Hugh A. Daubeny, J.W. Hall, R.M. DeYoung, and A.K. Anderson
The inheritance of resistance to the root lesion nematode [Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb) Filip. and Stek.] in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) was studied in a four-member half diallel, involving two resistant genotypes and two susceptible genotypes. Estimates of general and specific combining abilities (GCA and SCA, respectively) were determined for nematode densities in roots alone and soil alone, nematode densities per plant, and plant root and foliage biomass. GCA were significant for nematodes in soil and for root and foliage biomass; SCA were significant for nematodes in the soil and for root biomass. Neither GCA nor SCA was significant for number of nematodes in the roots or per plant.
Eduard Alcañiz, Jorge Pinochet, Carolina Fernández, Daniel Esmenjaud, and Antonio Felipe
Fourteen Prunus rootstocks were evaluated against mixtures of several isolates of the root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus vulnus Allen and Jensen in three greenhouse experiments. Most of the tested rootstocks are new releases or materials in advanced stages of selection that also have incorporated root-knot nematode resistance. The plums Torinel (Prunusdomestica L.) and Redglow (P. salicina Lindl. P. munsoniana Wight and Hedrick cv. Jewel) showed a moderately resistant response; their final nematode population levels were lower or slightly higher than inoculation levels. Low nematode reproduction also was found in the peach–almond hybrid G N No 22 [P. persica (L.) Batsch P. dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb] and the plum Bruce (P. salicina P. angustifolia Marsh.), and although these rootstocks did not perform as well as Torinel and Redglow, they also appear to be poor hosts for P. vulnus.
Thierry Vrain, Robyn DeYoung, John Hall, and Stan Freyman
Cover crops used in red raspberry plantings (Rubus idaeus L.) are often good hosts of the root-lesion nematode (Pratylenchus penetrans Filipjev & Sch. Stekoven), a major soilborne pathogen of raspberry. The effects of two susceptible cover crops, white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), planted in between rows, on nematode density and growth of raspberry plants were compared to those of three cover crops resistant to the nematode: redtop (Agrostis alba L.), creeping red fescue (Festuca rubra L.), and `Saia' oat (Avena sativa L.). Nematode multiplication in raspberry roots and in cover crop roots was assessed over 4 years. Growth and vigor of plants were estimated at the end of the experiment by counting primocanes and determining height and biomass. Nematode multiplication was suppressed in roots of `Saia' oat, fescue, and redtop compared to barley or white clover. Nematode density in roots and rhizosphere soil of raspberry was not affected by the choice of cover crops. Nematode suppression in the three resistant cover crops did not translate into increased vigor of raspberry plants.
Rachel E. Rudolph, Thomas W. Walters, Lisa W. DeVetter, and Inga A. Zasada
, including posts and wire, is then put in place. One of the primary production challenges red raspberry growers confront is soilborne diseases, which includes root lesion nematodes ( Zasada et al., 2015 ). This migratory endoparasite moves between soil and
John W. Potter and Adam Dale
Intraspecific crossing of `Guardian' and `Midway' cultivated strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) produced a family of genotypes, some of which suppressed root-lesion nematode [Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb)] population counts and produced large berries and high yield. Unlike `Midway', `Guardian' also suppressed P. penetrans. Among several beach strawberry [Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duch.] and woodland strawberry (Fragaria virginiana Duch.) genotypes, variation was found in resistance and tolerance to root-lesion nematodes. Three F. chiloensis genotypes showed tolerance, and at least two genotypes may be somewhat resistant. Three F. virginiana genotypes also were tolerant, and three were resistant. Also, one (`Little Cataraqui 4') combined root growth vigor with nematode resistance. We concluded that exploitable genetic diversity in vigor and reaction to root-lesion nematodes exists in wild Fragaria and in F. ×ananassa.
The effects of temperature and root-lesion nematodes [Pratylenchus penetrans (Cobb)] on the growth of newly germinated `Bartlett' pear seedlings (Pyrus communis L.) were examined. At five temperatures from 10 to 30C, P. penetrans (five per gram of soil) did not purple the leaves. After 8 weeks, leaf number, trunk height, and top and root weights were reduced only at 25C. The number of P. penetrans in the roots were greatest at 15 and 20C. At 20C, P. penetrans (16 per gram of soil) caused the leaves of seedlings to turn purple, and, by 6 weeks after treatment, the nematodes had reduced leaf production, trunk elongation, and top and root growth.
D.K. Isutsa, I.A. Merwin, and B.B. Brodie
Apple replant disease (ARD) is a serious problem in fruit production, and none of the major clonal rootstocks are resistant to ARD. We have screened Malus domestica clones and species accessions from the USDA Malus Germplasm Repository at Geneva, N.Y., including M. angustifolia-2375.03 (MA), M. coronaria-2966.01 (MC), M. fusca-3031.01 (MF), M. ioensis-3059.01 (MI), M. sieversii-3530.01 (MS), and M. kirghisorum-3578.01 (MK), for resistance to ARD and root-lesion nematodes (RLN, Pratylenchus spp.), in a composite soil collected from 11 New York orchards with known ARD. Plant dry mass and height, root necrosis, and nematode populations in different apple species and clones were compared after 60 days growth in steam-pasteurized (PS), RLN-inoculated (IS), and naturally infested field (FS) soils with 1200 RLN per 100 cm3. More severe stunting, reduced plant dry mass, and root necrosis occurred in FS seedlings compared with those in PS, but M. angustifolia seedlings were substantially more resistant or tolerant to RLN and ARD than the other species tested. Plant dry mass ranked MK>MS>MA>MI>MF>MC, and these differences were significant at the 5% level. RLN root populations were negatively correlated with plant dry mass, and accounted for about 10% of its variation, with nematode populations in roots ranking MC>MF>MK>MI>MS>MA. Useful resistance to ARD and parasitic nematodes apparently exists within Malus germplasm collections, and can be identified by testing more genotypes, developing rapid resistance screening methods, and comparing RLN host preferences among Malus genotypes and various orchard cover crops.
A.W. McKeown, J.W. Potter, M. Gartshore, and P. Carson
Because of the need to find plants that suppress root lesion nematodes for use in rotation or cover-crops, 16 native sand-prairie species were evaluated for host status for 6 years. Plants were grown on a Fox sand soil at a local prairie plant nursery. Soil cores were taken in the spring, summer, and fall and assayed for plant parasitic nematodes. Five species supported very low numbers (less than 100/kg soil) of root lesion nematodes. Brown-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia hirta) had no detectable nematodes for the duration. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans L., Nash) samples produced detectable nematodes on only two sampling dates over the 6 years and were statistically not different from brown-eyed Susan. Butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa L.) also had very low detectable nematodes as did sand dropseed [Sporobolus cryptandrus (Torr.) Gray.]. New Jersey tea (Ceanothus americanus L.), little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash], and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi Vitman) were poor hosts with <200 nematodes/kg soil. Mountain mint (Pycnanthemum virginianum L), wild bergamont (Monarda fistulosa L), horsemint (Monarda punctata L), and dwarf blazing star (Liatris cylindracea L) all had root lesion populations over 3000/kg soil. Horsemint and wild bergamont plants died out, possibly as a result of nematode infestation. Root lesion nematodes have an extremely wide host range in current agronomic and horticultural crops, and weeds and are difficult to manage using nonchemical means. Indiangrass, switchgrass, big bluestem, and little bluestem have all been used agriculturally for pastures and consequently have potential as beneficial long-term rotation crops for nematode management and soil building.