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Larry J. Shoemake, Michael A. Arnold, and Fred T. Davies Jr.

A series of six experiments was conducted over eight years to investigate impacts of provenance on transplant establishment in landscapes and the role of adventitious root regeneration in differential genotypic responses during establishment of Platanus occidentalis L. Fall, spring, and summer transplants of container-grown half-sib families (HSF = seedlings derived from a single mother tree with unknown male parentage), including two selections native to Brazos County, Texas (Brazos-C, Brazos-D), one native to Cookeville, Tenn. (Cookeville), two Kentucky/Tennessee HSF from the Westvaco Corp. (WV-10, WV-14), and two Texas HSF from the Texas Forest Service tree improvement program (TFS-09, TFS-24), were established to determine field/landscape growth responses. Subsequent studies were conducted to investigate differential leaf gas exchange responses of TFS-09 and Cookeville during moderate water deficits and to determine root regeneration potential (RRP) responses of TFS-09, Brazos-C, WV-14, and Cookeville HSF following fall, spring, and summer transplant. To investigate consistency of within-family genotypic responses and to determine relationships among adventitious root initiation from shoot cuttings, RRP, and landscape establishment, five seedlings of TFS-09 and five from Cookeville HSF were clonally propagated and ramets tested under field and RRP conditions similar to those with seedling-derived plants. Regionally native HSF consistently grew taller, had larger trunk diameters, and often had greater survival during the first 3 years in the landscape than HSF not native to the region in which the studies were conducted. Rapidity of root regeneration among HFS at the time of transplant was the best root growth related predictor of successful landscape establishment. Some growth advantages were found using genetically improved HSF, but not as consistent an improvement as with the use of seedlings from regional provenances. Within-family variation in landscape performance was greater with nonregional Cookeville clones than with regional TFS-09 clones, however there was overlap among the more vigorous Cookeville clones and the least vigorous TFS-09 clones. Increased rapidity of root regeneration and drought adaptations related to leaf morphology and gas exchange characteristics may be involved in enhanced growth responses of Texas regional genotypes. No consistent relationships were found among adventitious rooting responses from shoot cuttings and subsequent RRP of the same genotypes from root tissues or their growth during the first 3 years in landscapes.

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Phillip C. Flanagan and W.T. Witte

Previous research at this facility has shown that copper sulfate, when incorporated with latex paint and applied to the interior surfaces of tube trays, was effective in chemically root pruning Quercus acutissima seedlings. Only 20% of deflected roots continued to grow after contacting Cu treated tube walls compared to controls. Treated plants showed a reduction of fibrous roots on the plug surface. Height and caliper were not affected by Cu treatments during chemical root pruning in the tube tray. Time required for regeneration of new roots was not affected by Cu treatments. Seedlings from each treatment were planted and grown two seasons under field conditions to observe effects on growth and root regeneration. No treatment effects occurred for height or caliper. Oak seedlings chemically root pruned with Cu exhibited more lateral growth and branching than control plants.

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Michael A. Arnold and Eric Young

After receiving 0, 600, 1200, or 1800 hr. of chilling at 5C, one-year-old Malus domestica Borkh. seedlings were given 10 sec. root dips either 10,000 ppm K-IBA solution or water control. Following chilling and IBA treatments, 20 seedlings of each combination were placed in forcing conditions of 20 ± 2C root temperatures and either 20 or 5 ± 1C shoot temperatures. Five seedlings of each treatment were harvested after 0, 7, 14, and 21 days of forcing. Five C prohibited budbreak and bark slipage for up to 21 days. Under 20C, budbreak, shoot elongation and root growth all occurred earlier, faster, and reached a higher level with increased chilling. Twenty C root and 5C shoot temperatures during forcing resulted in large increases in the growth of adventitious shoots on lateral roots, but had little effect on the formation of adventitious shoots on the tap root. K-IBA prohibited development of adventitious shoots on roots, reduced shoot elongation more so than budbreak, and increased root regeneration across chilling hours. K-IBA inhibition of adventitious shoots did not alter the overall pattern of root regeneration enhancement by chilling.

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Michael A. Arnold and Eric Young

After receiving 0, 600, 1200, or 1800 hr. of chilling at 5C, one-year-old Malus domestica Borkh. seedlings were given 10 sec. root dips either 10,000 ppm K-IBA solution or water control. Following chilling and IBA treatments, 20 seedlings of each combination were placed in forcing conditions of 20 ± 2C root temperatures and either 20 or 5 ± 1C shoot temperatures. Five seedlings of each treatment were harvested after 0, 7, 14, and 21 days of forcing. Five C prohibited budbreak and bark slipage for up to 21 days. Under 20C, budbreak, shoot elongation and root growth all occurred earlier, faster, and reached a higher level with increased chilling. Twenty C root and 5C shoot temperatures during forcing resulted in large increases in the growth of adventitious shoots on lateral roots, but had little effect on the formation of adventitious shoots on the tap root. K-IBA prohibited development of adventitious shoots on roots, reduced shoot elongation more so than budbreak, and increased root regeneration across chilling hours. K-IBA inhibition of adventitious shoots did not alter the overall pattern of root regeneration enhancement by chilling.

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Larry J. Shoemake and Michael A. Arnold

Seven half-sib families of Platanus occidentalis L., either genetically improved selections (TFS-09, TFS-24, WV-10, WV-14) or non-improved selections (Brazos-C, Brazos-D, Putnam), were grown outdoors in 2.3-L to 9.1-L containers, then transplanted in fall, spring, or summer to assess root regeneration potential (RRP) and initial (2 year) post-transplant landscape growth. TFS-09, TFS-24, Brazos-C, and Brazos-D were Texas selections, while WV-10, WV-14, and Putnam were from Tennessee and Kentucky. Generally, local half-sib families grew more rapidly than geographically distant families and some genetically improved selections grew more rapidly than non-improved selections, both in the landscape and nursery. Rapid growth of new roots and transplanted root dry matter were more consistently associated with successful transplant establishment across families than other measures of RRP. Survival was reduced after summer vs. spring or fall transplant.

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Driss Iraqi, Isabelle Duchesne, and Jacques-André Rioux

The most widespread deformation observed in container production is root circling. Consequently, root circling often reduces growth, root regeneration, and tree anchorage at transplanting time. The objectives of this study were to test the effectiveness of Cu(OH)2 lined containers on restriction of root tips, tree growth, and potential root regeneration (PRR). Two species were used in this study: Fraxinus pennsylvanica and Acer saccharinum. Species were grown for one season in containers lined with one of six combinations of polymer (P) (0, 30, and 60 g·m–2) and copper (Cu) (0%,0.4%, and 0.8%) -coated fabric. Two other treatments were included as controls: a plastic container and a fabric container. Seedlings of each species were harvest twice: at the first season and after being transplanted from 10- to 75-liter containers. Treatments were randomized in complete blocks with six repetitions. Results of root circling length and dry weight indicate good restriction of root tips for two combinations (30 g of P/m2–0.8% Cu; 60 g of P/m2–0.8% Cu) for all species. However, treatments did not cause any reduction in stem height, trunk diameter, or stem and root dry weight. At the end of the transplanting season, PRR was greater for two combinations (30 g of P/m2–0.8% Cu; 60 g of P/m2–0.8% Cu), especially for green ash. No significant differences were observed between a plastic fabric and the two treatments cited for the other growth parameters. No phytotoxic symptoms were observed throughout the experiment.

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Michael A. Arnold, Larry J. Shoemake, and Mitchell W. Goyne

Transplant studies were conducted on Taxodium distichum L., Platanus occidentalis L., Quercus shumardii Buckl., Fraxinus velutina Torr., and Chilopsis linearis (Cav.) Sweet seedlings grown in 2.2- to 9.1-L black plastic containers. Effects of half-sib family selection on post-transplant root regeneration potential (RRP) and field establishment were investigated with P. occidentalis. Taxodium distichum, Q. shumardii, and P. occidentalis were used to determine seasonal variation in relationships among RRP characteristics and measures of successful transplant establishment. Post-transplant effects of avoidance of circling root development vs. remediation practices were investigated with Q. shumardii. Effects of container media composition on field establishment and RRP of container-grown plants were studied using F. velutina and C. linearis. Impacts of rotation time on RRP and field establishment were investigated with T. distichum. Rates of RRP were the measure most consistently linked to improved post-transplant shoot growth of P. occidentalis. Utilization of locally adapted genotypes and avoidance of summer transplant were important in establishment of P. occidentalis and T. distichum. Increased small diameter root regeneration was linked to reduced water stress during transplanting of Q. shumardii. Physical characteristics of the container media impacted initial post-transplant growth of F. velutina and C. linearis.

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Michael A. Arnold

Quercus shumardii Buckl. seedlings were grown for 3 or 7 months in 2.3-liter black plastic containers. Containers were either treated or not on interior surfaces with 100 g Cu(OH)2/liter latex carrier. Trees were transplanted in summer or fall to quantify post-transplant responses to mechanical correction or chemical prevention of circling roots. Four treatments were used at each transplant date; nonpruned seedlings from Cu(OH)2-treated or nontreated containers, and seedlings from nontreated containers in which two mechanical root pruning techniques were used, traditional severing of circling roots on the rootball periphery or splitting and splaying the bottom two-thirds of the rootball at transplant (butterfly pruning). Traditional root pruning severed more small-diameter roots (≤0.5 mm), while butterfly pruning severed more large-diameter roots. During the first 21 days following transplant most root regeneration was via elongation of intact root tips. Cu(OH)2-treated seedlings regenerated substantially more roots ≤1.0 mm in diameter and a greater root mass than mechanically root pruned or nonpruned seedlings. Both corrective mechanical pruning techniques resulted in greater predawn water stress during immediate post-transplant (21 days) establishment in October than seedlings chemically treated to prevent circling root development. Treatments that severed more roots and/or removed greater root mass were associated with decreased field performance and increased post-transplant water stress. Increased numbers of small- to medium-diameter new roots were associated with reduced post-transplant water stress and improved post-transplant shoot growth. Nonpruned and traditional root pruned seedlings grew little during the first two post-transplant growing seasons regardless of transplant date. Butterfly pruning resulted in severe dieback of shumard oak seedlings. Cu(OH)2-treated seedlings were the only ones to exhibit a gain in height or stem diameter after 2 years in the field.

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Thomas J. Brass, Gary J. Keever, D. Joseph Eakes, and Charles H. Gilliam

Growth response of two red maple cultivars (Acer rubrum L. `October Glory' and `Northwood') to styrene lining or copper hydroxide coating of 23.3-liter black plastic containers was evaluated. After the first growing season, plants were left in their original container, repotted into 51.2-liter nontreated containers, or transplanted into the landscape. Copper hydroxide effectively reduced circling of roots of both cultivars at the medium–container interface during the first year of production, but was less effective during the second growing season. Repotting from copper-treated containers into 51.2-liter containers or transplanting into the landscape resulted in more fibrous root development and enhanced root regeneration outside the original rootball relative to transplanting from nontreated containers. However, when copper hydroxide was applied to styrene lining, root regeneration after transplanting was reduced. Roots of plants grown in styrene-lined containers covered the medium–container interface more thoroughly than those in nonlined containers, but height, trunk diameter, and root regeneration were similar. `October Glory' had a larger trunk diameter, more branching, and better root regeneration than `Northwood'.

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Chris Starbuck, Daniel K. Struve, and Hannah Mathers

Two experiments were conducted to determine if 5.1-cm-caliper (2 inches) `Summit' green ash (Fraxinus pensylvanica), and 7.6-cm-caliper (3 inches) northern red oak (Quercus rubra) could be successfully summer transplanted after being heeled in pea gravel or wood chips prior to planting in the landscape. Spring harvested trees of each species were either balled and burlapped (B&B) or barerooted before heeling in pea gravel or wood chips. Compared to B&B `Summit' green ash, bareroot stock had similar survival and shoot extension for three growing seasons after summer transplanting. Bareroot and B&B northern red oak trees had similar survival and central leader elongation for 3 years after summer transplanting. In the third year after transplanting, northern red oak bareroot trees heeled in pea had smaller trunk caliper than B&B trees heeled in wood chips. These two taxa can be summer transplanted B&B or bareroot if dormant stock is spring-dug and maintained in a heeling-in bed before transplanting. This method of reducing transplant shock by providing benign conditions for root regeneration can also be used to extended the planting season for field-grown nursery stock; the method is called the Missouri gravel bed system.