Diploid (2x) and autotetraploid (4x) Citrus L. rootstock cultivars were grown at elevated CO2 to obtain insights into limitations on growth and net gas exchange that have been associated with tetraploidy. Well-nourished 2x and 4x seedlings of `Volkamer' lemon (Volk, C. volkameriana Ten & Pasq.), `Troyer' citrange [Troy, C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] and `Cleopatra' mandarin (Cleo, C. reticulata Blanco.), were grown in greenhouses at either ambient or twice ambient CO2 for 4 months. Plant growth, water relations, mineral nutrition, and net gas exchange characteristics of leaves were measured. Most 4x plants were smaller and had lower rates of whole plant transpiration but shorter fibrous roots than 2x plants. Fibrous roots of 4x were thicker than 2x roots as indicated by a lower specific root length (SRL) in 4x than in 2x roots. Root hydraulic conductivity was correlated to total plant growth but there were no effects of CO2 or ploidy on root conductivity. Tetraploid leaves had lower N concentrations than 2x leaves when expressed on a dry weight basis but these differences disappeared when N concentration was expressed on an leaf area basis because 4x leaves had more leaf dry weight per area (LDW/a) than 2x leaves. Plant growth was greater and SRL was lower at elevated CO2 than at ambient CO2. LDW concentrations of N, P, and K were lower at elevated CO2 than at ambient apparently due to a growth dilution effect. LDW/a, net CO2 assimilation (ACO2), and leaf water use efficiency were greater at elevated CO2 than at ambient. Overall, there was no effect of ploidy on ACO2 but 4x Volk and Troy had lower rates of ACO2 than their 2x at elevated CO2. Net gas exchange of tetraploid leaves was less responsive to elevated CO2 than 2x leaves. The low SRL of tetraploids was correlated with low whole plant transpiration rates and low leaf area-based N concentrations, which may be operative in determining the growth characteristics associated with tetraploidy.
J.P. Syvertsen, L.S. Lee, and J.W Grosser
D.M. Glenn and R. Scorza
In reciprocal grafts of tall (`Elberta' and `Loring') and dwarf (`Empress' and `Juseito') peach (Prunus persica Batsch.) phenotypes, we measured dry-matter partitioning, resistance to root system water flow, and phytohormone content of xylem exudate. Scion characteristics determined the phenotype and growth characteristics of the tree irrespective of the rootstock. Tall phenotypes had higher dry weight and lower root resistance to water flow than dwarf phenotypes. Cytokinin-like activity and auxin levels in xylem sap were higher in dwarf than in tall phenotypes; whereas gibberellin-like activity was unaffected by either rootstock or scion. The scion of peach influenced phytohormone levels and resistance to water flow in the root system in addition to root and shoot growth.
Lesley A. Judd, Brian E. Jackson, William C. Fonteno, and Jean-Christophe Domec
substrate physical property analysis. These substrates were taken from the same source used to pot this experiment and therefore amended similarly. Calculations of root conductivity and statistical analysis. Root conductance values ( K r ) were divided by
J.P. Syvertsen, J.W Grosser, and L.S. Lee
We grew three diploid (2X) Citrus rootstock seedlings and their autotetraploids (4X) at elevated CO2 to obtain insights into limitations on growth and net gas exchange that have been associated with tetraploidy. Well-nourished Volkamer lemon (Volk), Troyer citrange (Troy), and Cleopatra mandarin (Cleo) were grown in greenhouses at ambient or twice ambient CO2 for 3 months. We measured plant growth, water relations, mineral nutrition, and net gas exchange characteristics of leaves. Overall, tetraploid roots were thicker as 4X had lower root length: dry weight ratio or specific root length (SRL) than 2X roots. Tetraploid plants were smaller and had higher root/shoot ratios, shorter fibrous roots, and lower whole plant transpiration than 2X. Tetraploids also had lower leaf N and P concentrations on a dry weight basis. Since 4X leaves had thicker leaves (more dry weight per area) than 2X leaves, these nutrient differences disappeared when expressed on an leaf area basis. Elevated CO2 increased plant growth but decreased leaf N, P, and K apparently by a growth dilution effect. Elevated CO2 also increased fibrous root thickness, leaf thickness, and net assimilation of CO2 (ACO2) but decreased stomatal conductance and transpiration such that leaf water use efficiency increased. There was no effect of ploidy level on ACO2 but 4X Volk and Troy had lower rates of ACO2 than their diploids at elevated CO2. Hydraulic conductivity of intact root systems (measured in a pressure pot) was correlated to total plant growth but variability obscured effects of CO2 or ploidy on root conductivity. The low SRL of tetraploids were correlated with lower rates of water use and lower leaf nutrient concentrations, which may be operative in determining the growth characteristics associated with tetraploidy.
Smita Barkataky, Robert C. Ebel, Kelly T. Morgan, and Keri Dansereau
. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 50 571 599 Van den Honert, T.H. 1948 Water transport in plants as a catenary process Discuss. Faraday Soc. 3 146 153 Wilcox, D.A. Davies, F.S. 1981 Temperature-dependent and diurnal root conductivities in two citrus