Shoot and root growth were measured on Chinese juniper (Juniperus chinensis L. `Torulosa', `Sylvestris', `Pfitzeriana', and `Hetzii') 1, 2, and 3 years after planting from 1l-liter black plastic containers. Mean diameter of the root system expanded quadratically, whereas mean branch spread increased linearly. Three years after planting, root spread was 2.75 times branch spread, and roots covered an area 5.5 times that covered by the branches. Percentage of total root length located within the dripline of the plants remained fairly constant for each cultivar during the 3 years following planting. Root length density increased over time but decreased with distance from the trunk. During the first 2 years after planting, shoot mass increased faster than root mass. In the 3rd year, the root system increased in mass at a faster rate than the shoots. Root length was correlated with root weight. Root spread and root area were correlated with trunk cross-sectional area, branch spread, and crown area.
Edward F. Gilman and Michael E. Kane
Benjamin D. Taylor and Benjamin K. Hoover
each cutting. The contrast of the original images was first enhanced by 0.2%, then the images were converted to binary, with roots as black pixels and background as white pixels. Two-dimensional root area was defined as the total area of black pixels
Amy N. Wright, Stuart L. Warren, Frank A. Blazich, and Udo Blum
The length of time between transplanting and subsequent new root initiation, root growth rates, and root growth periodicity influences the ability of woody ornamentals to survive transplanting and become established in the landscape. Research was conducted to compare root growth of a difficult-to-transplant species, Kalmia latifolia L. (mountain laurel), to that of an easy-to-transplant species, Ilex crenata Thunb. (Japanese holly), over the course of 1 year. Micropropagated liners of `Sarah' mountain laurel and rooted stem cuttings of `Compacta' holly were potted in 3-L containers. Plants were grown in a greenhouse from May to September, at which time they were moved outside to a gravel pad, where they remained until the following May. Destructive plant harvests were conducted every 2 to 4 weeks for 1 year. At each harvest, leaf area, shoot dry weight (stems and leaves), root length, root area, and root dry weight were determined. Throughout the experiment, shoot dry weight and leaf area were similar for the two species. New root growth of `Compacta' holly and `Sarah' mountain laurel was measurable 15 and 30 days after potting, respectively. Root length and root area of `Sarah' mountain laurel increased during May through December but decreased during January through May. Root length and root area of `Compacta' holly increased linearly throughout the course of the experiment. Final root: shoot ratio of `Sarah' mountain laurel was one-ninth that of `Compacta' holly. Results suggest that poor transplant performance of mountain laurel in the landscape may be related to its slow rate of root growth.
D.G. Mortley, P.A. Loretan, C.K. Bonsi, W.A. Hill, and C.E. Morris
The effects of within-channel spacings (WCS; 13, 18, 25 cm) and between-channel spacings (BCS; 13, 25,38 cm) on yield and linear growth rate of sweetpotatoes [Ipomoea batalas (L.) Lam.] grown by use of the nutrient film technique (NFT) were evaluated. Storage root count, fresh and dry weights, and linear growth rate, expressed as root area, declined linearly in response to decreased BCS, while fresh and dry foliage weight decreased linearly and quadratically as spacing was reduced within the growth channels. Neither linear growth rate on a canopy area basis nor the edible biomass index was significantly affected by WCS or BCS.
Laura G. Jull, Stuart L. Warren, and Frank A. Blazich
Stem cuttings of `Yoshino' Japanese cedar [Cryptomeria japonica (L.f.) D. Don `Yoshino'], consisting of tips (terminal 20 cm) of first-order laterals, distal halves (terminal 10 cm) of tips of first-order laterals, and proximal halves (basal 10 cm) of tips of first-order laterals, or tips (terminal 10 cm) of second-order laterals, were taken on four dates that represented four growth stages (softwood, semi-hardwood, hardwood, and pre-budbreak). The cuttings were treated with 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 mg IBA/liter. Branch order affected all rooting measurements at each growth stage. Regardless of growth stage, tips of and proximal halves of first-order laterals containing lignified wood had the highest percent rooting, root count, total root length, root area, and root dry weight. Hardwood tips of and semi-hardwood proximal halves of first-order laterals exhibited the highest overall rooting (87%), followed by softwood proximal halves of first-order laterals (78%). Rooting of distal halves of first-order laterals and tips of second-order laterals never exceeded 55% and 34%, respectively, at any growth stage. IBA treatment influenced percent rooting, root count, total root length, root area, and root dry weight of semi-hardwood, hardwood, and pre-budbreak cuttings, except for root dry weight of semi-hardwood cuttings. IBA had no affect on softwood cuttings. Chemical name used: 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).
Jill C. Larimer and Dan Struve
In the spring of 1993, red oaks (Quercus rubra) and `Red Sunset' red maples (Acer rubrum cv. `Red Sunset') were propagated from seed and microcuttings, respectfully. From June through October, plants were fertilized twice daily with 1.4 liters of fertilizer solution at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm nitrogen from a 20-10-20 water soluble fertilizer. Destructive harvests were conducted six times at intervals from June through December. Leaf area, stem height, root length, root area, and dry weights of roots, stem, and leaves of harvested plants were measured and tissue nutrient concentration analyzed. Nutrient analyses of roots, stems, and leaves show seasonal distribution patterns of nitrogen. Dose- response patterns of fertilizer rate and growth were identified throughout the growing season.
Helen Tyler Kraus
The objective of this research was to consider the effects of gravel, wood chip, and tire mulches and turf on soil moisture and root and shoot growth of Chilopsis linearis (Cav.) `Burgundy' (desert willow). Gravel, wood chip, and tire mulches retained greater soil moisture than bare soil (control) with little difference in soil moisture between the mulches. Mulched trees and bare soil had greater height and shoot and root dry weights than trees in turf. Turf conserved soil moisture better than bare soil but appeared to compete with desert willow for water and nutrients resulting in less growth. Trees with gravel and tire mulches had greater shoot dry weight in the second year of growth and greater root dry weight, root length, and root area in both the first and second years of growth after transplanting.
Amy N. Wright, Stuart L. Warren, and Frank A. Blazich
Root growth is a critical factor in landscape establishment of container-grown woody ornamental species. Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel) often does not survive transplanting from containers into the landscape. The objective of this experiment was to compare rate of root growth of mountain laurel to that of Ilex crenata `Compacta' (`Compacta' holly) and Oxydendrum arboreum (sourwood). Six-month-old tissue-cultured liners (substrate intact) of mountain laurel, 1-year-old rooted cutting liners (substrate intact) of `Compacta' holly (liner holly), 6-inch bare root seedling liners of sourwood, and 3-month-old bare-root rooted cuttings of `Compacta' holly were potted in containers in Turface™. Prior to potting, roots of all plants were dyed with a solution of 0.5% (w/v) methylene blue. Plants were greenhouse-grown. Destructive harvests were conducted every 2 to 3 weeks (six total harvests). Length, area, and dry weight of roots produced since the start of the experiment, leaf area, and dry weight of shoots were measured. Sourwood and liner holly had greater rate of increase in root length and root dry weight than mountain laurel and bare root holly. Rate of increase in root area was greatest for sourwood, followed by (in decreasing order) liner holly, mountain laurel, and bare-root holly. Increase in root length and root area per increase in leaf area was highest for liner holly, possibly indicating why this species routinely establishes successfully in the landscape. Increase in root dry weight per increase in shoot dry weight was lowest for mountain laurel. The slow rate of root growth of mountain laurel (compared to sourwood and liner holly) may suggest why this species often does not survive transplanting.
Edward F. Gilman and Michael E. Kane
Post-planting root development of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) on a well-drained site was compared with that on a site with a high water table. Container-grown red maple planted in 1985 were excavated in 1988 and cross-sectional root area (CSRA) calculated for roots >1 cm diameter, 5 cm beyond the edge of the original container rootball. Adventitious roots were generated in the field after planting, not in the container. Total adventitious CSRA was three times greater than CSRA of roots generated from the original container-produced root system. The number of adventitious roots (7.6) generated from the trunk and primary root after planting was greater than the number of roots originating from the existing root system (4.2). Adventitious root origin on both sites was within 5 cm of the soil surface, above the often circling, kinked, or twisted roots found within the container root ball. Four of the five largest roots were of adventitious origin. Root number, size, and growth rate were not modified by differences in cultural and environmental conditions between sites.
Edward F. Gilman and Michael E. Kane
Shoot and root growth were measured on Chinese juniper (Juniperus chinensis L.) Var. `Torulosa', `Sylvestris', `Pfitzeriana' and `Hetzii' 1, 2 and 3 years after planting into a simulated landscape from 10-liter black plastic containers. Mean diameter of the root system increased quadratically averaging 1, 2 m/year; whereas, mean branch spread increased at 0, 33 m/year, Three years after planting, root spread was 2, 75 times branch spread and roots covered an area 5.5 times that covered by the branches. Percentage of total root length located within the dripline of the plants remained fairly constant (71-77%) during the first 3 years following planting. Root length density per unit area increased over time but decreased with distance from the trunk. In the first 2 years after planting shoot weight increased faster than root `weight. However, during the third year after planting, the root system increased in mass and size at a faster rate than the shoots. Root length was correlated with root weight within root-diameter classes, Root spread and root area were correlated with trunk area, branch spread and crown area.