In reciprocal grafts of tall (`Elberta' and `Loring') and dwarf (`Empress' and `Juseito') peach (Prunus persica Batsch.) phenotypes, we measured dry-matter partitioning, resistance to root system water flow, and phytohormone content of xylem exudate. Scion characteristics determined the phenotype and growth characteristics of the tree irrespective of the rootstock. Tall phenotypes had higher dry weight and lower root resistance to water flow than dwarf phenotypes. Cytokinin-like activity and auxin levels in xylem sap were higher in dwarf than in tall phenotypes; whereas gibberellin-like activity was unaffected by either rootstock or scion. The scion of peach influenced phytohormone levels and resistance to water flow in the root system in addition to root and shoot growth.
D.M. Glenn and R. Scorza
W.R. Okie and A.P. Nyczepir
Roots of dormant peach trees can grow when soil temperatures are >7 °C, which commonly occurs in the southeastern U.S. during the winter. In our tests, root growth on 1-year-old nursery trees was minimal at 7 °C, and increased with temperature up to at least 16 °C, but rootstocks varied greatly in their regeneration at a given temperature. Trees on seedling rootstocks of `Guardian™', `Halford' and `Lovell' regenerated roots more slowly than those on `Nemaguard' at soil temperatures >7 °C. The regeneration rates mirrored the relative susceptibility of these rootstocks to peach tree short life syndrome in the southeastern U.S., which is associated with parasitism by ring nematode.
Joseph P. Albano and William B. Miller
Our objective was to determine the effects on plant growth and physiology that a photodegraded Fe-chelate containing lab-prepared nutrient solution would have when used in plant culture. Plants grown hydroponically in the irradiated Fe-DTPA containing nutrient solution had ferric reductase activity 2.2 times greater, foliar Fe level 0.77 times less, and foliar Mn level 1.9 times greater than in plants grown in an identical but non-irradiated solution, indicating that plants growing in the irradiated solution were responding to Fe deficiency stress with physiological reactions associated with Fe efficiency. The youngest leaves of plants that were grown in the irradiated solution had symptoms of Mn toxicity. Restoration of the irradiated solution by removing the precipitated Fe by centrifugation and adding fresh Fe-chelate resulted in plants that were, in general, not different from those grown in the non-irradiated solution (control).
Joseph P. Albano and William B. Miller
Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) grown hydroponically in an irradiated nutrient solution containing FeDTPA had root ferric reductase activity 120% greater, foliar Fe level 33% less, and foliar Mn level 90% greater than did plants grown in an identical, nonirradiated solution, indicating that the plants growing in the irradiated solution were responding to Fe-deficiency stress with physiological reactions associated with Fe efficiency. The youngest leaves of plants grown in the irradiated solution had symptoms of Mn toxicity (interveinal chlorosis, shiny-bronze necrotic spots, and leaf deformation). Plants grown in irradiated solution in which the precipitated Fe was replaced with fresh Fechelate were, in general, no different from those grown in the nonirradiated solution. Chemical name used: ferric diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (FeDTPA).
Georgios Psarras, Ian A. Merwin, Alan N. Lakso, and John A. Ray
A 2-year field study of `Mutsu' apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] on `Malling 9' (M.9) rootstock was conducted to observe root growth in situ, and compare patterns of root growth, root maturation and turnover rates, and soil-root respiration. Rhizosphere respiration was monitored with a portable chamber connected to an infrared gas analyzer; root emergence, browning, and turnover rates were measured by direct observation through minirhizotron tubes inserted in the root zone. Negligible root growth was observed before the onset of shoot growth in mid-May. In both years, a main peak of new root emergence in late June and early July coincided partially with major phases of shoot and fruit growth. A smaller peak of root emergence during August to September 1997 consisted primarily of new roots at 20 to 45 cm soil depths. Most roots remained <1 mm in diameter and developed in the upper 25 cm soil profile; no roots were observed at any time below 50 cm, due to a compacted soil layer at that depth. The cumulative survivorship of new roots was 38% in 1996 and 64% in 1997, and 50% of emergent white roots turned brown or senesced within 26 days in 1996 and 19 days in 1997. Root turnover rates were highest in mid-August both years. Rhizosphere respiration was correlated (r 2 = 0.36 and 0.59, P = 0.01 and 0.004) with soil temperatures in 1996 and 1997, with Q10 values of 2.3 in both years. The Q10 for root-dependent respiration (the difference between soil only and combined soil-root respiration) in 1997 was 3.1, indicating that roots were more sensitive than soil microflora to soil temperature. The temporal overlap of high rates of shoot, root and fruit growth from late May to mid-July suggests this is a critical period for resource allocations and competition in temperate zone apple trees.
Georgios Psarras and Ian A. Merwin
One-year-old potted `Mutsu' apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] trees on scion invigorating Malling-Merton 111 (MM.111) and scion dwarfing Malling 9 (M.9) rootstocks were grown outdoors in containers under three levels of water availability (irrigated at -20, -80, and -200 kPa) to investigate the effects of soil water availability on combined soil/root (rhizosphere) respiration rates, and developmental morphology of root systems. Rhizosphere respiration was measured with a portable infrared gas analyzer, and root biomass was estimated by electrical capacitance. These nondestructive measurements were compared with final root dry weights of harvested trees, to determine their reliability for estimating relative differences in root biomass. Water stress reduced final biomass similarly for both rootstocks, but the relative reduction in shoot growth was greater for MM.111. Root to shoot ratios were higher and average specific root respiration was lower for M.9 rootstock compared with MM.111. M.9 appeared to be more tolerant of water stress then MM.111, due to reduced canopy transpiration relative to root system mass. Water stress increased root to shoot ratios, specific root length, and the carbohydrate costs of root maintenance as indicated by specific respiration rates. Root dry weight (DW) was better correlated to rhizosphere respiration than to root electric capacitance. The observed r 2 values between root capacitance and root DW were as high as 0.73, but capacitance measurements were also influenced by soil water content and rootstock type. Electrical capacitance estimated total root biomass more accurately for M.9 than for MM.111.
Joseph P. Albano
) supplied with photodegraded Fe-chelate-containing fertilizer solution, expressed root physiology or nutrition associated with Fe deficiency induced Strategy I Fe efficiency. These plants had enhanced root ferric reductase activity (marigold) and higher
Yali Song and Bingru Huang
impairment of other root physiological functions such as decreased water and nutrient uptake and increased abscisic acid could all contribute to the decline in shoot and root growth under H. Changes in root hormone profiles for creeping bentgrass under
Hua Shen, Hongmei Du, Zhaolong Wang, and Bingru Huang
, NY Liu, X. Huang, B. 2005 Root physiological factors involved in cool-season grass response to high soil temperature Environ. Exp. Bot. 53 233 245 Marcum, K.B. 1998 Cell membrane