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Nektarios Panayiotis, Tsiotsiopoulou Panayiota and Chronopoulos Ioannis

Four substrates were investigated for their efficacy as roof garden vegetative layers. The substrates comprised a sandy loam soil (S), sandy loam soil amended with urea formaldehyde resin foam (S:F) in a proportion of 60-40 v/v, sandy loam soil amended with peat and perlite (S:P:Per) in a proportion of 50-30-20 v/v and peat amended with urea formaldehyde resin foam (P:F) in a proportion of 60-40 v/v. The substrates were evaluated for their physical and chemical properties and their capacity to sustain growth of Lantana camara L. Physical and chemical evaluation included weight determination at saturation and at field capacity, bulk density determination, water retention, air filled porosity at 40 cm, pH and EC. When compared to the control (S) a weight reduction of 16.8%, 23.9% and 70.3% was obtained at field capacity with S:F, S:P:Per and P:F substrates respectively. Bulk density was reduced by 46%, 43% and 95%, in substrates S:F, S:P:Per and P:F, respectively, compared to the control substrate S. Air-filled porosity at 40 cm was slightly increased for substrate S:F while it was substantially increased for substrate P:F. The pH response between the initiation and the termination of the study was similar for the four substrates. EC decreased in substrates S and S:P:Per but increased in substrates S:F and P:F. Plant growth was monitored as shoot length, shoot number, main shoot diameter and the number of buds and flowers. Substrates S and S:F resulted in similar plant growth, while substrate S:F promoted flowering. Substrate S:P:Per induced slow plant growth during the first 6 months which subsequently increased resulting in a final growth that was satisfactory and comparable to the S and S:F substrates. Substrate P:F did not support sufficient plant growth and its use should be considered only in special cases where reduced weight of the roof garden is imperative.

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Julie Guckenberger Price, Stephen A. Watts, Amy N. Wright, Robert W. Peters and Jason T. Kirby

Green roofs are becoming increasingly prevalent in the United States due to their economical and environmental benefits as compared with conventional roofs. Plant selection for green roofs in the variable climate of the southeastern United States has not been well evaluated. Shallow substrates on green roofs provide less moderation of temperature and soil moisture than deeper soils in traditional landscapes, necessitating empirical evaluation in green roof environments to make informed recommendations for green roof plant selection. Nineteen species and cultivars, including succulents, grasses, and forbs, were evaluated under seasonal irrigated and non-irrigated conditions in experimental green roofs. Plants were planted on 26 Oct. 2009 and each evaluated for survival and increase in two-dimensional coverage of the substrate during establishment, after overwintering, and after the first growing season. The winter 2009–10 was colder than normal, and some plants, such as ice plants (Delosperma spp.), considered to be cold-hardy in this climate did not survive through the winter. Irrigation influenced survival for the summer period and only succulent plants like stonecrops (Sedum spp.) survived without irrigation. Irrigated experimental green roofs had significantly lower summer substrate temperatures (up to 20 °F lower) and plants survived in irrigated conditions. Plants that survived both winter and summer under irrigated conditions include pussytoes (Antennaria plantaginifolia), mouse-ear tickseed (Coreopsis auriculata), eastern bottlebrush grass (Elymus hystrix), glade cleft phlox (Phlox bifida stellaria), and eggleston's violet (Viola egglestonii). Irrigation is recommended on extensive green roofs to increase the palette for plant selection by protecting against plant mortality due to drought and extreme soil temperatures.

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Paraskevi A. Londra, Maria Psychoyou and John D. Valiantzas

container-grown plants, in roof gardens, and sports fields. Urea–formaldehyde resin foam and its effect on plant growth has been the subject of study as an amendment for soils and organic substrates for several researchers ( Chan and Joyce, 2007 ; Mooney

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Nikolaos Ntoulas, Panayiotis A. Nektarios, Thomais-Evelina Kapsali, Maria-Pinelopi Kaltsidi, Liebao Han and Shuxia Yin

aeration and two soil moisture regimes Soil Sci. 172 108 123 Nektarios, P.A. Tsiotsiopoulou, P. Chronopoulos, I. 2003 Soil amendments reduce roof garden weight and influence the growth rate of Lantana HortScience 38 618 622 Nikologianni, A. Andreou, P

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Jennifer M. Bousselot, James E. Klett and Ronda D. Koski

Sedum -cuttings in seed-mixtures for extensive roof gardens Acta Hort. 643 301 303 Latocha, P. Batorska, A. 2007 The influence of irrigation system on growth rate and frost resistance of chosen ground cover plants on extensive green roofs 131 137 Annals

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Panayiotis A. Nektarios, Ioannis Amountzias, Iro Kokkinou and Nikolaos Ntoulas

Nektarios, P.A. Tsiotsiopoulou, P. Chronopoulos, I. 2003 Soil amendments reduce roof garden weight and influence the growth rate of Lantana HortScience 38 618 622 Qian, Y.L. Engelke, M.C. 1999 Performance of five turfgrasses under linear gradient irrigation

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Ying Ma, Xinduo Li, Zhanying Gu and Jian’an Li

color. The leaves are fleshy, alternately arranged, cylindrical, green, and do not have a superficial white powder coating. Potted sedum plants are used for ornamental purposes. The species is also used in landscaping rock gardens, roof gardens, and as a

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Susan Barton, Jules Bruck and Chad Nelson

Marx in Rio de Janeiro), Magalhaes Residence (a private garden in Rio de Janeiro designed by Burle Marx and Haruyoshi Ono), Flamingo Park (a public park in Rio de Janeiro designed by Burle Marx), the Ministry of Health roof garden (a garden on a public

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Christine E. Thuring, Robert D. Berghage and David J. Beattie

Growing plants on rooftops is an old concept that has evolved from sod roofing to roof gardens and today's lightweight extensive green roofs. Green roofs serve as partial solutions for many problems created by the built environment, and have become

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Michael W. Olszewski, Marion H. Holmes and Courtney A. Young

of coated and uncoated crested wheatgrass seeds Ecol. Res. 25 6 11 Nektarios, P.P.T. Chronopoulos, I. 2004 Comparison of different roof garden substrates and their impact on plant growth Acta Hort. 643 311 313 Olszewski, M.W. Trego, T.A. Kuper, R