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Darren E. Robinson, Nader Soltani, Allan S. Hamill and Peter H. Sikkema

Combining herbicides and fungicides can improve production efficiency; however, there is little information on the effect of these mixtures on weed control and processing tomato crop response. Six field trials were conducted from 2002 to 2004 in Ontario to study the effect of rimsulfuron and thifensulfuron applied alone or in combination with metribuzin and with or without chlorothalonil or copper fungicides on processing tomato. There was no visual injury or reduction in marketable yield of processing tomato with rimsulfuron or thifensulfuron alone or when tank-mixed with chlorothalonil or copper hydroxide. Rimsulfuron, thifensulfuron, rimsulfuron plus metribuzin, and thifensulfuron plus metribuzin could be tank-mixed with chlorothalonil without a reduction in weed control. However, efficacy of rimsulfuron and thifensulfuron were reduced when tank-mixed with copper hydroxide. The reduction in weed control incited by adding copper hydroxide was overcome with a low rate (150 g·ha–1 a.i.) of metribuzin for thifensulfuron but not rimsulfuron. Application of rimsulfuron and thifensulfuron alone or with low rates of metribuzin and chlorothalonil could provide tomato growers with a single-pass treatment for the control of troublesome weeds and diseases.

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Patrick E. McCullough and William Nutt

, selective postemergence herbicides are used for weed control in spring as bermudagrass emerges from winter dormancy. Rimsulfuron and sulfosulfuron are sulfonylurea herbicides used for weed control in bermudagrass ( Chaleff and Mauvais, 1984 ; Dupont, 2004

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Amit J. Jhala, Analiza H.M. Ramirez and Megh Singh

) and oryzalin (Surflan®; United Phosphorus, King of Prussia, PA) are commonly used soil-applied herbicides for control of many annual weeds and certain broadleaf weeds in citrus. Rimsulfuron (Solida™; Cheminova, Research Triangle Park, NC) is a

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Renata L. Solan, Jed B. Colquhoun, Richard A. Rittmeyer and Daniel J. Heider

rows: common ragweed and wild buckwheat. Between-row weed control was consistently greater than 90% in ‘Russet Burbank’ and ‘Bannock Russet’ with rimsulfuron and metribuzin POST broadcast, and with rimsulfuron and metribuzin POST in-row banded with

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Richard G. Greenland and Kirk A. Howatt

Nightshade species are difficult to control in tomato production and their interference reduces both tomato yield and quality. Rimsulfuron can be used to control nightshades, but species and biotypes vary in their response to rimsulfuron. The objectives of this study were to evaluate control of hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides Sendt.) and eastern black nightshade (Solanum ptycanthum Dun.) by rimsulfuron and compare North Dakota eastern black nightshade accession response to three acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibitor herbicides. In field studies conducted at Oakes, N. Dak., rimsulfuron at rates of 26 or 53 g·ha–1 a.i. was applied within 1 week after transplanting tomato (EPOST) or 2 to 4 weeks after transplanting (POST). Rimsulfuron gave excellent control of hairy nightshade when applied POST, and poor to excellent control when applied EPOST, with control being much better when hairy nightshade had emerged before the EPOST application. Rimsulfuron at 53 g·ha–1 provided greater control than at 26 g·ha–1 only for the EPOST applications. Rimsulfuron controlled hairy nightshade which allowed eastern black nightshade (which was not controlled by rimsulfuron) to dominate tomato. Tomato yield was lower when dominated by hairy nightshade than by eastern black nightshade. This was due to the earlier emergence and faster growth of hairy nightshade compared to eastern black nightshade. Tomato yield was higher in the hand-weeded check than for all other treatments in 1999, the only year the hand-weeded check was included in the study. Greenhouse studies on plants grown from seed collected at the experimental site verified that eastern black nightshade was tolerant to rimsulfuron but was controlled by tribenuron and imazethapyr. Rimsulfuron can be used in tomato production to control hairy nightshade, but not the accession of eastern black nightshade found in this study. Chemical names used: N-((4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)aminocarbonyl)-3-(ethylsulfonyl)-2-pyridinesulfonamide (rimsulfuron); (α,α,α-trifluoro-2,6-dinitro-N,N dipropyl-p-toluidine) (trifluralin); methyl 2-[[[[(4-methoxy-6-methyl–1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)methylamino]carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]benzoate (tribenuron methyl); (±)-2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo–1H-imidazol-2-yl]-5-ethyl-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid (imazethapyr).

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M.J. Haar, S.A. Fennimore, M.E. McGiffen, W.T. Lanini and C.E. Bell

In an effort to identify new herbicides for vegetables crops, broccoli (Brassica oleracea) cantaloupe (Cucumis melo), carrot (Daucus carota), head lettuce (Lactuca sativa), bulb onion (Allium cepa), spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were evaluated in the field for tolerance to eight herbicides. The following herbicides and rates, expressed in a.i. lb/acre, were applied preemergence: carfentrazone, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2; flufenacet, 0.525; flumioxazin, 0.063, 0.125 and 0.25; halosulfuron, 0.032 and 0.047; isoxaben, 0.25 and 0.50; rimsulfuron, 0.016 and 0.031; SAN 582, 0.94 and 1.20 and sulfentrazone, 0.15 and 0.25 (1.000 lb/acre = 1.1208 kg·ha-1). Tolerance was evaluated by measuring crop stand, injury and biomass. Several leads for new vegetable herbicides were identified. Lettuce demonstrated tolerance to carfentrazone at 0.05 and 0.10 lb/acre. Cantaloupe and processing tomato were tolerant of halosulfuron at 0.032 and 0.047 lb/acre. Broccoli, cantaloupe and processing tomato were tolerant of SAN 582 at 0.94 lb/acre. Broccoli and carrot were tolerant of sulfentrazone at 0.15 lb/acre.

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Jerald K. Pataky, Jonathan N. Nordby, Martin M. Williams II and Dean E. Riechers

Some sweet corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids and inbreds can be severely injured by applications of postemergence herbicides. An association was observed between the responses of sweet corn hybrids and inbreds to nicosulfuron and mesotrione, and F2 families derived from a cross of a sensitive (Cr1) and a tolerant (Cr2) sweet corn inbred segregated for response to these two herbicides. These observations prompted us to examine the inheritance of sensitivity in sweet corn to multiple postemergence herbicide treatments with different modes of action and to determine if there was a common genetic basis for cross-sensitivity to these herbicides. The sensitive and tolerant inbreds, progeny in the F1, F2, BC1, and BC2 generations, and BC1S1, BC2S1, F2:3 (S1:2) and F3:4 (S2:3) families were screened for responses to eight herbicide treatments. Based on segregation of tolerant and sensitive progeny and segregation of family responses, our data indicate that a single recessive gene in Cr1 conditioned sensitivity to four acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides (foramsulfuron, nicosulfuron, primisulfuron, and rimsulfuron), a 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicide (mesotrione), a growth regulator herbicide combination (dicamba + diflufenzopyr), and a protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicide (carfentrazone). Based on highly significant positive correlations of phenotypic responses among BC1S1, BC2S1, F2:3, and F3:4 families, the same gene (or closely linked genes) appeared to condition responses to each of these herbicide treatments. The dominant allele also conditions tolerance to bentazon [a photosystem II (PSII)-inhibiting herbicide] although another gene(s) also appeared to affect bentazon tolerance.

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Grant R. Manning and Steven A. Fennimore

Methyl bromide has been the foundation of chemical weed control in strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) in California for over 40 years. The impending phaseout of methyl bromide may leave strawberry producers dependent on less efficacious alternative fumigants for weed control. The use of herbicides to supplement fumigants is a potential weed control strategy for strawberry. A 2-year field study was conducted in California to evaluate 10 herbicides as possible supplements for methyl bromide alternative fumigants. Herbicides were applied immediately after transplanting (immediate posttransplant), and 3 weeks after transplanting (delayed posttransplant). Napropamide applied immediate posttransplant was included as a commercial standard. Immediate posttransplant treatments that were safe in strawberry include carfentrazone at 0.075 and 0.15 lb/acre (0.084 and 0.168 kg·ha-1), flumioxazin at 0.063 lb/acre (0.071 kg·ha-1) and sulfentrazone at 0.175 and 0.25 lb/acre (0.196 and 0.28 kg·ha-1). Triflusulfuron at 0.016 lb/acre (0.017 kg·ha-1) was the only delayed posttransplant treatment with acceptable selectivity. Among the selective herbicides applied immediate posttransplant, flumioxazin and napropamide provided the most consistent control of bur clover (Medicago polymorpha) and shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). Triflusulfuron applied delayed posttransplant did not significantly reduce bur clover densities, but did reduce shepherd's purse densities.

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Mary Joy M. Abit and Bradley D. Hanson

experiments were conducted at nurseries near Newcastle and Yuba City, CA to evaluate herbicide treatments containing isoxaben, dithiopyr, pendimethalin, oxyfluorfen, thiazopyr, and rimsulfuron ( Table 4 ). PRE herbicide treatments were applied on 13 Apr. 2009

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Joe E. Toler, Thomas G. Willis, Alan G. Estes and Lambert B. McCarty

encouraging result from these studies was that 10 of the herbicide treatments (rimsulfuron, trifloxysulfuron, flazasulfuron, glufosinate + clethodim, glufosinate, pronamide, foramsulfuron, glufosinate + glyphosate, glyphosate + diquat, and glyphosate