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Huanfang Liu, Chelsea D. Specht, Tong Zhao and Jingping Liao

times ( Purseglove et al., 1981 ), and is now cultivated and used worldwide. The rhizome contains the flavor and pungency of the culinary spice together with the essential volatile oils ( Zarate and Yeoman, 1994 ). Ginger leaves are also aromatic and

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Martin F. Quigley and Stephen Mulhall

Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) is an herbaceous perennial valued for its fleshy rhizomes, which contain the alkaloids hydrastine and berberine. While it is understood that relative shade influences growth and yield of goldenseal, optimal shade level for maximum rhizome mass and plant vigor under cultivation has not been established. Goldenseal plants grown from cold stratified rhizomes were kept under shade for 5 months in the greenhouse. Treatments were five different shade levels ranging from 60% to 95% of full shade, plus a control group in full sun. Measured variables included rootlet length, bud development, and rhizome mass. Plants grown under moderate shade (60 to 70%) produced longer and more numerous rootlets, more bud primordia, and had greater rhizome mass and healthier leaves than plants grown under extreme shade (95%) or in full sun. Decreasing shade density had a major impact on plant condition and growth. Those plants grown with the greatest sun exposure displayed 100% scorch damage to the foliage, in comparison to <35% damage in the moderate shade (30 to 40%). The results suggest that moderate shading may double yield in rhizome mass, and promote increased bud proliferation in subsequent seasons. Late season leaf vigor is not correlated with rhizome mass.

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Togo M. Traore, Deacue Fields, Floyd M. Woods, Amy N. Wright, Kenneth M. Tilt, Weidong Ke and Yiman Liu

Lotus is an aquatic perennial vegetable native to many subtropical and temperate zones, and cultivated extensively throughout Asia ( Huang et al., 2003 ). Rhizomes, stems, flowers, seeds, and young leaves of lotus are in great demand and considered

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Jeff S. Kuehny, Patricia C. Branch, Gordon E. Holcomb and Wen-Chy Chang

Approved for publication by the director of the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station as manuscript no. 97-28-0398. The rhizomes for this research were provided by Golden State Bulb Growers, Watsonville, Calif. The cost of publishing this paper

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Brian E. Corr and Richard E. Widmer

Experiment Station, Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108. We thank Brown Bulb Co., Capitola, Calif., and the New Zealand Calla Producers Assn. for donating the rhizomes used in this study. Portions of this research were funded by the American Floral

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Jacob A. Griffith Gardner, Jessica D. Lubell and Mark H. Brand

, 2013 ). Current nursery propagation of C. peregrina by rhizome division is not meeting consumer demand for this plant. C. peregrina is difficult to propagate from seed due to germination inhibitors present in the seedcoat ( Del Tredici and Torrey

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Nathalie Nivot, Alain Olivier and Line Lapointe

same principles. Briefly, they consist of reducing or eliminating apical dominance to induce the production of new buds along the rhizome or to stimulate existing dormant buds, both of which result in the formation of small offsets. After the flowering

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Qi Zhang, Jack Fry, Channa Rajashekar, Dale Bremer and Milton Engelke

composition and their association with freezing tolerance in turfgrass, and specifically zoysiagrass, have not been measured. Our objective was to compare differences in rhizome polar lipid classes in less hardy Z. matrella ‘Cavalier’ and more hardy Z

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Kee Yoeup Paek and Toyoki Kozai

We report the results of serial studies aimed at clarifying several factors affecting organogenesis in rhizome culture of temperate Cymbidium species and their hybrids. The growth patterns and regeneration ability of rhizomes derived from asymbiotic seed or shoot tip culture vary according to media composition, kinds and concentrations of plant growth regulators, culture conditions, and species and varieties. N6-benzyladenine was the best cytokinin for inducing shoot formation, for switching rhizome tissues into protocorm-like bodies, and for directly forming multiple shoots from branched rhizomes. Activated charcoal appeared to be necessary for producing healthy plantlets and for stimulating shoot growth at levels of 0.1% to 0.3% but concomitantly decreased rhizome growth. Sucrose at 5% was the most effective concentration for shoot induction from rhizomes. The above results support the conclusion that organogenic pathways between tropical, subtropical, and temperate Cymbidium species may be controlled by the genetic backgrounds of the species or cultivars.

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Joe-Ann McCoy, Jeanine M. Davis, N. Dwight Camper, Ikhlas Khan and Avula Bharathi

). Rhizomes and roots are traditionally harvested in the fall and are standardized to various concentrations of three triterpene glycosides, actein, 23-epi-26-deoxyactein, and cimiracemoside A ( Ganzera et al., 2000 ; Upton, 2002 ). The specific mode of