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Nikki Hanson, Amy L. Ross-Davis, and Anthony S. Davis

the production of milkweed by directly sowing seeds into larger volume containers is lacking. In restoration plantings, particularly where competition is a factor and environmental stress limits establishment success, larger seedlings may be superior

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Michael N. Dana

Interest in native plant species for general landscape planting, mitigation of environmental impact and ecological restoration plantings continues to expand with public awareness of environmental quality. An expanding area of opportunity exists for the landscape horticulture industry to supply non-traditional plant materials to support landscape planting with native species. To capitalize on the opportunity, horticulture and landscape architecture students and practitioners must become knowledgeable of species native to their region. Video is a useful medium for increasing such knowledge. This presentation will review the development, production, distribution and content of six video programs that survey the native herbaceous flora of Indiana prairies and woodlands. Each program is less than 30 minutes in length, to facilitate classroom use and presentation in broadcast formats. Botanically correct nomenclature is presented graphically as each species is introduced. The narration includes botanical, ecological and horticultural information, but emphasizes plant lore to increase interest for general audiences and provide memory clues for those attempting to learn the plants. This project, supported by the Indiana Association of Nurserymen, provides a good example of how horticultural industries can become leaders as the public expands its demand for improved environmental quality.

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Esther E. McGinnis, Alan G. Smith, and Mary H. Meyer

Pennsylvania sedge (Carex pensylvanica) is an upland forest sedge with restoration and horticultural potential as a low-maintenance groundcover for dry shade. For large landscape and restoration plantings, seed or achenes in this case are much preferred due to lower labor and material costs. However, pennsylvania sedge typically produces few achenes in its native habitat. As a first step in improving achene production, this research evaluated the effect of vernalization and photoperiod on floral initiation and development. We conclude that this sedge is an obligate short-day plant that does not require vernalization for flowering. Plants flowered when exposed to daylengths of 6 to 12 hours. Flowering was completely inhibited with 14-hour photoperiods. Pennsylvania sedge was florally determined after 4 weeks of 8-hour photoperiods. Inflorescence quantity and normal floral development varied by clone and by weeks of exposure to 8-hour photoperiods. For two of the clones, the largest number of normal monoecious inflorescences was produced with 8 to 10 weeks of 8-hour photoperiods while the other two clones only required 6 to 8 weeks of exposure to inductive photoperiods. Therefore, it is important to evaluate observable variation between clones when attempting to propagate pennsylvania sedge.

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Allison D. Oakes, Tyler Desmarais, William A. Powell, and Charles A. Maynard

Many hardwood tree species are being threatened by exotic pests, and for some, only genetic engineering can offer a solution before functional extinction occurs. An example of how genetic engineering can be a useful tool for forest restoration is the transgenic american chestnuts, which contain a wheat oxalate oxidase gene conferring resistance to the chestnut blight. Many hundreds of these trees are needed for field trials and eventual restoration plantings throughout its natural range, but production is bottlenecked because of the difficulty of making hardwood trees produce roots through micropropagation. The presence of roots and living shoot tips precede successful acclimatization of tissue culture-produced american chestnut plantlets. In these experiments, we attempted to improve the post-rooting stage of our american chestnut propagation protocol. We examined vessel type, hormone, and activated charcoal concentrations, and using a vermiculite substrate. For plantlets with the best combination of roots and living shoot tips we recommend using semisolid post-rooting medium containing 2 g·L−1 activated charcoal and 500 mg humic acid in disposable fast-food takeout containers. When using vermiculite as a substrate, adding 2.0 g·L−1 activated charcoal to post-rooting medium without a gelling agent was the preferred treatment. Improving the survival rates of the american chestnut plantlets will benefit the american chestnut restoration project by providing more plant material for both ecological studies and eventual restoration, since pursuit of a nonregulated status for these transgenic trees will require extensive field testing. These procedures may also be applicable to other difficult-to-root hardwood trees in transgenic programs, such as american butternut, white oak, and black walnut.

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Edward W. Bush and Pamela B. Blanchard

participating schools conducted a year-round, ongoing nursery program during which they grew native Louisiana grasses and trees ( Table 1 ) that can be used by students in a hands-on restoration planting field trip 9 months later. Integrated with this hands

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R. Kasten Dumroese, Douglass F. Jacobs, and Anthony S. Davis

) seedlings currently used for restoration plantings on the island of Hawaii ( Walters, 1981 ), even though dibble tube seedlings were grown at the “medium” label rate and all seedlings had similar production times in the nursery. Our 2.3 kg·m −3 CRF rate was

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Christine E.H. Coker, Gary Bachman, Chris Boyd, Pamela B. Blanchard, Ed Bush, and Mengmeng Gu

-going nursery program in which they grow native Louisiana grasses and trees that can be used by students in a hands-on restoration planting field trip 9 months later. Integrated with this hands-on aspect of the program, students learn about nursery maintenance

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Larry A. Rupp, Richard M. Anderson, James Klett, Stephen L. Love, Jerry Goodspeed, and JayDee Gunnell

.A. 2017 Phytophthora in nursery stock and restoration plantings. 16 May 2018. < http://phytosphere.com/soilphytophthora/Issues_implications_Phytophthora_container_stock.htm >

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Clinton C. Shock, Erik B.G. Feibert, Alicia Rivera, Lamont D. Saunders, Nancy Shaw, and Francis F. Kilkenny

Lomatium is needed for use in rangeland restoration plantings in the Intermountain West, but these plants are rarely cultivated, and cultural practices for seed production are largely unknown. A major limitation to economically viable commercial production

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John E. Montoya Jr., Michael A. Arnold, Juliana Rangel, Larry R. Stein, and Marco A. Palma

reliably increased in those systems ( Haaland et al., 2011 ). Similarly, to support more abundant and diverse pollinator populations and simultaneously improve crop yields, research has suggested that the planting of floral restoration plant varieties to