., 2002 ; Olson et al., 2011 ). In contrast, tropical pumpkin has a deeper root system that would be expected to take up residual soil N. Thus, fertilizer rates for tropical pumpkin are usually lower, in the range of 50 to 75 lb/acre of N in rotation
David Sotomayor-Ramírez, Miguel Oliveras-Berrocales and Linda Wessel-Beaver
H.H. Krusekopf, J.P. Mitchell, T.K. Hartz, D.M. May, E.M. Miyao and M.D. Cahn
Overuse of chemical N fertilizers has been linked to nitrate contamination of both surface and ground water. Excessive use of fertilizer also is an economic loss to the farmer. Typical N application rates for processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) production in California are 150 to 250 kg·ha-1. The contributions of residual soil NO3-N and in-season N mineralization to plant nutrient status are generally not included in fertilizer input calculations, often resulting in overuse of fertilizer. The primary goal of this research was to determine if the pre-sidedress soil nitrate test (PSNT) could identify fields not requiring sidedress N application to achieve maximum tomato yield; a secondary goal was to evaluate tissue N testing currently used for identifying post-sidedress plant N deficiencies. Field experiments were conducted during 1998 and 1999. Pre-sidedress soil nitrate concentrations were determined to a depth of 60 cm at 10 field sites. N mineralization rate was estimated by aerobic incubation test. Sidedress fertilizer was applied at six incremental rates from 0 to 280 kg·ha-1 N, with six replications per field. At harvest, only four fields showed a fruit yield response to fertilizer application. Within the responsive fields, fruit yields were not increased with sidedress N application above 112 kg·ha-1. Yield response to sidedress N did not occur in fields with pre-sidedress soil NO3-N levels >16 mg·kg-1. Soil sample NO3-N levels from 30 cm and 60 cm sampling depth were strongly correlated. Mineralization was estimated to contribute an average of 60 kg·ha-1 N between sidedressing and harvest. Plant tissue NO3-N concentration was found to be most strongly correlated to plant N deficiency at fruit set growth stage. Dry petiole NO3-N was determined to be a more accurate indicator of plant N status than petiole sap NO3-N measured by a nitrate-selective electrode. The results from this study suggested that N fertilizer inputs could be reduced substantially below current industry norms without reducing yields in fields identified by the PSNT as having residual pre-sidedress soil NO3-N levels >16 mg·kg-1 in the top 60 cm.
Luther C. Carson, Monica Ozores-Hampton, Kelly T. Morgan and Steven A. Sargent
with CRF (NPK and urea) in 2012 compared with SF at similar N rates as a result of higher soil NO 3 – -N contents and higher residual CRF prill N contents. Treatment 9 resulted in low residual soil TN, but the residual soil N contents are similar to T6
Sean M. Westerveld, Mary Ruth McDonald and Alan W. McKeown
The Nutrient Management Act (NMA) established in the province of Ontario in 2002 has prompted a re-evaluation of nitrogen (N) management practices. However, N management research in Ontario is currently outdated. The experiment in this 3-year study was designed to establish the yield response of carrot (Daucus carota) to N fertilization on mineral and organic soils and identify the relative yield effects of preplant and residual soil N. In 2002, N was applied at 0%, 50%, 100%, 150%, and 200% of recommended N application rates in Ontario as ammonium nitrate (organic soil: 60 kg·ha-1 preplant; mineral soil: 110 kg·ha-1 split 66% preplant/33% sidedress). Experimental units were split in half in 2003 and 2004, and N was applied to one half in 2003 and both halves in 2004 to identify the effects of residual N from the previous season on yield. Crop stand, yield, and quality were assessed at harvest, and storability was assessed by placing carrots into cold storage for 6 months. Nitrogen application rate had no effect on the yield, quality, or storability of carrots grown on organic soil. On mineral soil there were no effects of applied N in the first year of the 3-year study. In the second and third year on mineral soil, yield increased in response to increasing N, up to 200% and 91% of the recommended application rate, respectively, based on the regression equations. Yield declined above 91% of the recommended application rate in the third year due to a decrease in stand at higher N application rates. There were no effects of N on carrot quality or storability on mineral soil. On mineral soil, residual N from the 2002 season had more effect on yield at harvest in 2003 than N applied in 2003. This major effect of residual soil N on yield provides an explanation for the lack of yield response to preplant N application in previous studies conducted in temperate regions. These results indicate that there is no single N recommendation that is appropriate for all years on mineral soil. Assessing the availability of N from the soil at different depths at seeding is recommended to determine the need for N application.
J.M.S. Scholberg, L.R. Parsons and T.A. Wheaton
Improving our understanding of processes that control and limit nitrogen uptake by citrus can provide a scientific basis for enhancing nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency. Nitrogen uptake dynamics of two rootstock seedlings will be compared to those of young budded trees. Three-month old Swingle citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macf. × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] and Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.) trees were planted in PVC columns filled with a Candler fine sand. Field experiments were conducted using 4-year-old `Hamlin' orange trees [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] grafted on `Carrizo' [C. sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] or on Swingle citrumelo. Trees were either grown in solution culture using 120-L PVC containers or in 900-L PVC tubs filled with a Candler fine sand. Additional trees were planted in the field during Spring 1998. Two lateral roots per tree were trained to grow in slanted, partly burried, 20-L PVC columns filled with a Candler fine sand. Nitrogen uptake from the soil was determined by comparing the residual N extracted by intensive leaching from planted units with that of non-planted (reference) units. With the application of dilute N solutions (7 mg N/L), plants reduced N concentrations to near-zero N concentrations within days. Applying N at higher concentrations (70 or 210 mg N/L) resulted in higher initial uptake rates, increased residual soil N levels, and reduced nitrogen uptake efficiency. Contributions of passive uptake to total nitrogen uptake ranged from less than 5% at soil solution concentrations around 3 ppm N to 20% to 30% at concentrations of 60 ppm N.
Brian A. Kahn, Yaying Wu, Niels O. Maness, John B. Solie and Richard W. Whitney
Research was conducted to develop a cultural system that would permit a destructive mechanical okra [Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench] harvest. Okra grown at a highly dense (HD) plant population of 25 × 23 cm and destructively harvested by machine was compared with control plants spaced at 90 × 23 cm and repeatedly and non-destructively harvested by hand. The control N fertilization regime was 45 kg·ha-1 of N preplant, followed by one or two topdressings, each with 22 kg·ha-1 of N. Treatments applied to HD plots were designed to be multiples of the control N fertilization levels. Preplant fertilizer was added such that the sum of residual soil N plus the added fertilizer would total to 45, 90, or 135 kg·ha-1 of N for the standard, intermediate, and highest rates, respectively. Topdressing rates were 22, 44, or 66 kg·ha-1 of N for standard, intermediate, and highest, respectively. Topdressing was timed to follow a mechanical harvest of the HD plots. Since there was only one mechanical harvest in the two 1995 studies, topdress N treatments did not affect yields from mechanical harvest in that year. Nitrogen treatments had few effects on fruit yield per hectare of HD okra, even when stem N concentrations equaled or exceeded those of control plants. The highest N rate tended to delay fruit production. Increasing N rates did not affect the marketable fruit yield obtained by mechanical harvest of HD plants expressed as a percentage of the total cumulative marketable fruit yield from control plants. Physiological factors appear to be limiting the potential for densely planted okra in a destructive mechanical harvest system rather than horticultural factors such as N nutrition.
R. Terry Jones and David C. Ditsch
Tomato fertility trials (1992–94) showed no yield response to fertigation N rates between 101–393 kg·ha–1. In 1995, soil Cardy NO3-N readings taken just prior to fertigation showed 53 kg NO3-N/ha in the top 30 cm. Laboratory test on the same sample showed 72.4 kg/ha (NO3 + NH4-N). Forty percent of the available nitrogen was NH4-N, which is not detected by Cardy meters. Soil mineral N levels were measured at fourth injection, second harvest, and 9 days after last harvest. On these dates the 0 kg N/ha treatment had 28, 24, and 8 mg N/kg available in the top 15 cm of soil, similar to the N fertigation treatments. As the growing season progressed, soil mineral N levels decreased, and 9 days after the last harvest residual soil N levels were close to those seen initially. Tomato petiole sap Cardy NO3-N readingsshowed a significant difference between the 0 kg·ha–1 treatment and those (84, 168, and 252 kg·ha–1) receiving N (512 ppm vs. 915, 1028, and 955 ppm NO3-N, respectively). Treatments receiving fertigation N gave petiole sap NO3-N readings higher than those listed by Hochmuth as sufficient for tomatoes. While the data showed a clear separation between the three N treatments and 0 N rate, no significant difference in yield of US #1 or US #2 large fruit occurred. This suggests that adequate N fertility was provided from O.M. mineralization. The highest N rate also had significantly more US #1 small and cull tomatoes than the other treatments. Some Kentucky soils have adequate residual N capable of producing commercial fresh-market tomato crops with little or no additional N. In addition to potential ground water pollution, overfertilization of tomatoes may decrease fruit size and reduce fruit quality by causing NH4-K + ion competition, as well as increase the risk of certain fungal and bacterial diseases.
John D. Lea-Cox and James P. Syvertsen
We examined how N supply affected plant growth and N uptake, allocation and leaching losses from a fine sandy soil with four Citrus rootstock species. Seedlings of `Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and `Swingle' citrumelo (C. paradisi × P. trifoliata) were grown in a glasshouse in 2.3-liter pots of Candler fine sand and fertilized weekly with a complete nutrient solution containing 200 mg N/liter (20 mg N/week). A single application of 15NH4 15NO3(17.8% atom excess 15N) was substituted for a normal weekly N application when the seedlings were 22 weeks old (day O). Six replicate plants of each species were harvested at 0.5, 1.5, 3.5, 7, 11, and 30 days after 15N application. In a second experiment, NH4 NO3 was supplied at 18,53, and 105 mg N/week to 14-week-old `Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.) and sour orange (C. aurantium L.) seedlings in a complete nutrient solution for 8 weeks. A single application of 15NH4 15NO3 (23.0% 15N) was substituted at 22 weeks (day 0), as in the first experiment, and seedlings harvested 3,7, and 31 days after 15N application. Nitrogen uptake and partitioning were similar among species within each rate, but were strongly influenced by total N supply and the N demand by new growth. There was no 15N retranslocation to new tissue at the highest (105 mg N/week) rate, but N supplies below this rate limited plant growth without short-term 15N reallocation from other tissues. Leaf N concentration increased linearly with N supply up to the highest rate, while leaf chlorophyll concentration did not increase above that at 53 mg N/week. Photosynthetic CO2 assimilation was not limited by N in this study; leaf N concentration exceeded 100 mmol·m-2 in all treatments. Thus, differences in net productivity at the higher N rates appeared to be a function of increased leaf area, but not of leaf N concentration. Hence, N use efficiency decreased significantly over the range of N supply, whether expressed either on a gas-exchange or dry weight basis. Mean plant 15N uptake efficiencies after 31 days decreased from 60% to 47% of the 15N applied at the 18,20, and 53 mg N/week rates to less than 33% at the 105 mg N/week rate. Leaching losses increased with N rate, with plant growth rates and the subsequent N requirements of these Citrus species interacting with residual soil N and potential leaching loss.
temperature. Preplant and residual nitrogen effects on carrot yield Yields of carrots grown in temperate regions rarely increase in response to applied nitrogen (N). Westerveld et al. (p. 286 ) examined the effects of preplant N and residual soil N on yield
fertilizer-N in tropical pumpkin may be offset by greater residual soil N in the lower part of the soil profile, and the potential for this N to have a negative environmental impact. Agricultural Extension in China Cheng et al. (p. 846) summarize the history