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Charles Meister

The three IR4 Programs(Food-Use, Ornamentals, Biopesticides) research pest control needs that originate from stakeholders in each state. Pest control needs are documented as Project Clearance Requests. Researchable projects are identified at the National Food UseWorkshop anda research plan is developed at National Headquarters. This year IR4will research magnitude of residue projects to secure labels on 25 pest product and vegetable crop combinations. The list of projects will be distributed. The IR4 Project, Southern Region has augmented this process by establishing the Southern Region Performance Program(SRPP). Research scientists are asked to submit funding proposals to evaluate pest control products. Each proposal is scrutinized to prioritize needs and identify the most appropriate pest control product technologies. Product registrants, IR4 coordinators and stakeholders are consulted before a final decision is made. More than 70 research scientists from all states in the Southern Region will participate in the SRPP in 2005. Research data will be documented by in the IR4 National Data Mining process and many new project requests will be produced and others expanded to provide workshop participants information as they set priorities for IR4 researchin year2006.

Open access

Matthew H. Kramer, Ellen T. Paparozzi and Walter W. Stroup

We examined all articles in volume 139 and the first issue of volume 140 of the Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science (JASHS) for statistical problems. Slightly fewer than half appeared to have problems. This is consistent with what has been found for other biological journals. Problems ranged from inappropriate analyses and statistical procedures to insufficient (or complete lack of) information on how the analyses were performed. A common problem arose from taking many measurements from the same plant, which leads to correlated test results, ignored when declaring significance at P = 0.05 for each test. In this case, experiment-wise error control is lacking. We believe that many of these problems could and should have been caught in the writing or review process; i.e., identifying them did not require an extensive statistics background. This suggests that authors and reviewers have not absorbed nor kept current with many of the statistical basics needed for understanding their own data, for conducting proper statistical analyses, and for communicating their results. For a variety of reasons, graduate training in statistics for horticulture majors appears inadequate; we suggest that researchers in this field actively seek out opportunities to improve and update their statistical knowledge throughout their careers and engage a statistician as a collaborator early when unfamiliar methods are needed to design or analyze a research study. In addition, the ASHS, which publishes three journals, should assist authors, reviewers, and editors by recognizing and supporting the need for continuing education in quantitative literacy.

Open access

Matthew H. Kramer, Ellen T. Paparozzi and Walter W. Stroup

We examined all articles in volume 139 and the first issue of volume 140 of the Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science (JASHS) for statistical problems. Slightly fewer than half appeared to have problems. This is consistent with what has been found for other biological journals. Problems ranged from inappropriate analyses and statistical procedures to insufficient (or complete lack of) information on how the analyses were performed. A common problem arose from taking many measurements from the same plant, which leads to correlated test results, ignored when declaring significance at P = 0.05 for each test. In this case, experiment-wise error control is lacking. We believe that many of these problems could and should have been caught in the writing or review process; i.e., identifying them did not require an extensive statistics background. This suggests that authors and reviewers have not absorbed nor kept current with many of the statistical basics needed for understanding their own data, for conducting proper statistical analyses, and for communicating their results. For a variety of reasons, graduate training in statistics for horticulture majors appears inadequate; we suggest that researchers in this field actively seek out opportunities to improve and update their statistical knowledge throughout their careers and engage a statistician as a collaborator early when unfamiliar methods are needed to design or analyze a research study. In addition, the ASHS, which publishes three journals, should assist authors, reviewers, and editors by recognizing and supporting the need for continuing education in quantitative literacy.

Open access

Matthew H. Kramer, Ellen T. Paparozzi and Walter W. Stroup

We examined all articles in volume 139 and the first issue of volume 140 of the Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science (JASHS) for statistical problems. Slightly fewer than half appeared to have problems. This is consistent with what has been found for other biological journals. Problems ranged from inappropriate analyses and statistical procedures to insufficient (or complete lack of) information on how the analyses were performed. A common problem arose from taking many measurements from the same plant, which leads to correlated test results, ignored when declaring significance at P = 0.05 for each test. In this case, experiment-wise error control is lacking. We believe that many of these problems could and should have been caught in the writing or review process; i.e., identifying them did not require an extensive statistics background. This suggests that authors and reviewers have not absorbed nor kept current with many of the statistical basics needed for understanding their own data, for conducting proper statistical analyses, and for communicating their results. For a variety of reasons, graduate training in statistics for horticulture majors appears inadequate; we suggest that researchers in this field actively seek out opportunities to improve and update their statistical knowledge throughout their careers and engage a statistician as a collaborator early when unfamiliar methods are needed to design or analyze a research study. In addition, the ASHS, which publishes three journals, should assist authors, reviewers, and editors by recognizing and supporting the need for continuing education in quantitative literacy.

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Nancy Beck and Jim Kerr

The restructuring of government research and extension organisations within New Zealand provides a rare opportunity to reshape our approach to technology transfer. This paper describes the approaches which HortResearch is taking to develop its technology transfer activities and extension services to New Zealand's horticultural industries.

Research is without purpose if the resultant technology is not transferred from scientists to growers and other industry groups and vice versa. Effective research planning in HortResearch and the provision of decision support information to growers, will depend on good working links between researchers and other key industry players. Rapid development of this linkage is crucial due to the loss of the traditional free extension service in the restructuring process.

A working party assessed the industry's needs and concepts of technology transfer. A workshop to discuss technology transfer option was held with key people from the horticultural industry; this was followed later by an in-house workshop. Proposals for the Institute to establish link teams for each horticultural sector were the outcome.

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Veronda B. Holcombe and Mary T. Haque

The concept of designing and implementing sustainable landscapes for low-income communities grew from collaboration between several community partners and Clemson Univ. It was our desire to research, plan, design, and implement sustainable landscapes for Habitat for Humanity homes. The primary goal of designing for these low-income homes was to design for sustainability. We wanted our plans to promote energy efficiency, water conservation, and low maintenance costs. These implemented principals would help the homeowner drastically cut living costs. The design and implementation of wildlife habitats was also encouraged to promote knowledge and research on environmental issues. In the beginning of our design phase we interviewed our client about her user needs/desires and later presented her with the design. This began the exhibition and education phase of the project. By exhibiting the project we hoped to education the homeowner about the sustainability issues that are pertinent to her case. Our biggest educational outreach program took place during homecoming at Clemson Univ. Partnering with other student organizations and using donated plant material from a local nursery, we constructed gardens and “planted” trees around a Habitat for Humanity house that is built each year during homecoming and later moved by trailer to its final site. We also displayed our designs inside the house and created pamphlets and brochures for visitors to pick up detailing such topics as Butterfly Gardening. Spurred on by the success of this project a web page detailing our community and organizational involvement was created. Our projects have been covered in many newspaper articles, cable TV, and in a video on service learning being produced for national distribution. As a student it has given me and my other student colleagues an opportunity to engage in and acquire valuable hands-on experience in horticulture and environmental education/stewardship all the while providing a much needed public outreach service that assists and partners with community members in order to enhance their personal home environments.

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Craig A. Campbell

The purpose of this presentation is to describe the general Field R&D process undertaken by Abbott Laboratories and other agrochemical companies when developing a new plant growth regulator (PGR). A recently registered PGR for citrus named `EcoLyst' is used throughout the presentation as an example of common development strategies. Agrochemical companies acquire many new PGR compounds from outside sources, while others are discovered internally. Internal technology is obviously much simpler to control. In Abbott's case, most of the new PGR compounds are brought in from other places as a result of focused efforts to find new technology for development. Researchers, sales and marketing personnel, and full-time acquisition specialists all share the responsibility for finding new prospect PGRs. After a new PGR is identified, a company like Abbott must first determine if the lead is potentially available, and then, if it has sufficient value to warrant acquisition or in-licensing efforts. Once a PGR passes an initial screening process and is approved for potential development, a coordinated chain of events is initiated throughout the company's organization to accelerate work on the project. Field R&D creates a comprehensive research plan for the PGR that contains development goals. The scope of the research program increases significantly after the first research year, provided results are favorable. University and government scientists are generally brought into the research programs after a year or two of in-house testing. At predetermined control points in the development process, go/no go decisions are made based on reviews of research data, business plans, and regulatory progress.

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Craig A. Campbell

This paper describes the field research and development (FRD) process followed by agrochemical companies when developing a new plant growth regulator (PGR). Specific approaches used by Valent BioSciences Corporation in developing EcoLyst, a newly registered PGR for use on orange (Citrus sinensis) in the United States, are cited as examples of this process. Agrochemical companies acquire some new PGR compounds from outside sources, while others are discovered internally. Internal development of new compounds is simpler to control and manage. When a new PGR is identified from an outside source, a company must first determine if the compound is available for licensing or outright purchase. If so, they assemble a team of internal experts to review all available data (due diligence) to determine if it has sufficient value to warrant pursuit. Once a PGR passes the initial screening processes and is approved for acquisition and potential development, negotiations begin with the owner of the compound. Many projects stop abruptly when the negotiating companies fail to reach an agreement. Immediately after an agrochemical company successfully acquires a new PGR, a well-coordinated chain of events is initiated throughout the company's organization to accelerate work on the project. One component of this involves the FRD team, which creates a comprehensive field research plan for the PGR containing clearly defined development goals that are global in scope. The FRD team works throughout the world, near important crop production areas, conducting research with the company's products. Members of the FRD team generally report to a research leader located at the company's main headquarters. The FRD team is one part of a larger development team, that works collectively to find and develop promising new compounds and new uses for existing company products. If initial research results from a new compound are favorable, the objectives of the workplan increase significantly after the first year. University and government researchers are generally brought into the research programs after a year or two of in-house testing. Early stage work is often done under a secrecy agreement in order to protect proprietary information and interests. Specific control points are identified in the development process, where decisions are made to continue or not, based on reviews of research data, business plans, and regulatory progress.

Open access

Clinton C. Shock, Myrtle P. Shock, Candace B. Shock and Stuart R. Reitz

methods to address the question. The work of other researchers helps to provide ideas about valid methods in the field of science. If the author wishes to publish in English, the pertinent literature to review in research planning before initiating a new

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Edward W. Bush and Pamela B. Blanchard

, students can become active participants in wetland conservation and become more aware of the environment in which they live ( Roth, 1992 ). Future research planned for this program includes a survey of how teachers integrate the use of the container yard