expected to differ. More recently, DeMoranville (1992) studied both vegetative and reproductive growth of ‘Early Black’ in Massachusetts. Growth patterns of ‘Stevens’, ‘Crowley’, and ‘Pilgrim’ fruit in several cranberry regions have also been reported
Justine E. Vanden Heuvel and Carolyn J. DeMoranville
C. Yang, D.Y. Jiao, Z.Q. Cai, H.D. Gong, and G.Y. Li
with the ABA- and SA-induced mobilization of metabolites to the developing fruits during the drought conditions when current available photoassimilates was strongly limited, may have stimulated the switch from vegetative to reproductive growth and
Gina E. Fernandez and Marvin P. Pritts
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects that altering the probable source-sink relationships would have on subsequent growth and yield components under field conditions. The balance between vegetative and reproductive growth was altered by imposing light stress (shading) on various growth phases, or removing primocanes, floricanes or fruit. Removal of primocanes significantly increased yield the year of removal. However, if primocane removal coincided with canopy shading, this increase in yield was not achieved. Overall, a significant negative correlation existed between 1991 and 1992 yields. Treatments with high yields in 1991 had low yields in 1992, and visa verca. This evidence-suggests that: 1) primocanes and floricanes are competing for light, not photosynthates during the flowering and fruiting period and 2) altering the balance of vegetative and reproductive growth one year had a significant effect on growth the subsequent year.
J.G. Williamson and D.C. Coston
Several planting treatments modified vegetative and reproductive growth of young, own-rooted peach (Prums persica) trees evaluated at two levels of irrigation in a high-density orchard (5000 trees/ha). Trees planted in auger holes, narrow herbicide strips, and in fabric-lined trenches, but not those from raised beds, were smaller than control trees set in holes dug with a shovel. After two growing seasons, trees planted in the fabric-lined trenches were smaller and had more flowers per node and greater flower bud densities than trees in other planting treatments. Yield efficiency was greatest for this treatment, although fruit size was small throughout the orchard. Irrigation rates did not affect fruit yield or size. The effects of irrigation rate on vegetative growth were small compared to differences among planting treatments.
Conny W. Hansen and Jonathan Lynch
Whole-plant biomass accumulation, P dynamics, and root-shoot interactions during transition from vegetative to reproductive growth of `Coral Charm' chrysanthemum (Dendranthema ×grandiflorum Ramat.) (Zander, 1993) were investigated over a range of P concentrations considered to be deficient (1 μm), adequate (100 μm), and high (5 mm). In nondeficient plants, transition from vegetative to reproductive growth resulted in reduced relative growth rate and root and shoot biomass accumulation. Reproductive plants showed a higher commitment of the whole plant to the production of developing flowers than to leaves and roots, whereas, in vegetative plants, the highest component production rate was in leaves. This indicates changes in the source-sink relationships during transition from vegetative growth making developing flowers stronger sinks for photoassimilates than roots. Phosphorus allocated to developing flowers was predominantly lost from leaves. Phosphorus-deficient plants showed characteristic P-deficiency symptoms and favored root growth over shoot growth regardless of growth stage. Phosphorus availability in nondeficient plants affected root growth more than shoot growth. No substantial differences in shoot biomass production, relative growth rate, and CO2 assimilation rates were observed in adequate-P and high-P plants. However, the root component production rate, root to shoot ratio, root length ratio, specific root length, specific root area, root mass to leaf area ratio, and root respiration increased in adequate-P plants compared with high-P plants, which indicates that high root activity was maintained without affecting shoot biomass in buffered P conditions. Our results suggest that the high P concentrations used in many horticultural systems may have no benefit in terms of shoot growth and may actually be detrimental to root growth.
Keith T. Birkhold and Rebecca L. Darnell
The relative contribution of storage and currently assimilated N to reproductive and vegetative growth of `Bonita' and `Climax' rabbiteye blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) was estimated immediately before and during the fruit development period. Total and storage N decreased in roots and shoots of both cultivars during dormancy and early fruit development. The principle N storage form appeared to be protein, as indicated by a significant decline in total shoot and root protein during this same period. Storage N from roots and shoots in both cultivars was remobilized to flowers and/or fruit and new vegetative growth. At anthesis, 90% of the total N present in reproductive organs was estimated to come from storage N. By fruit maturity, ≈ 50% of the accumulated N was derived from storage pools. Storage N contributed 90% of the total N in developing vegetative growth of `Bonita' at leaf budbreak, which is concomitant with floral budbreak for this cultivar. Developing vegetative growth of `Climax' at leaf budbreak, which occurs ≈ 4 weeks after floral budbreak, derived ≈ 65% of its total N from storage and 35% from currently assimilated N. By fruit maturity, contribution of storage N to new vegetative growth had decreased to ≈ 20% in both cultivars, indicating that currently assimilated N became the principal N supply as vegetative growth became more established. Differences in timing of floral and vegetative budbreak between the two cultivars did not appear to affect allocation of either storage or currently assimilated N to new vegetative or reproductive growth.
Conny W. Hansen, Jonathan Lynch, and Carl-Otto Ottosen
Whole-plant CO2 exchange and root-shoot interactions during transition from vegetative to reproductive growth of `Coral Charm' chrysanthemum (Dendranthema ×grandiflorum Ramat.) were investigated over a range of P concentrations considered to be deficient (1 μM), adequate (100 μM), or high (5 mM). Transition from vegetative to reproductive growth resulted in reduced photosynthate production, root respiration, biomass accumulation, and starch accumulation in leaves. Root respiration was low in high-P plants regardless of growth stage. Reduced root respiration may indicate changes in source-sink relationships during the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, making roots less competitive sinks than developing flowers. Plant responses to P deficiency included decreased CO2 assimilation and shoot biomass accumulation but increased root respiration, root:shoot ratio, specific leaf mass (SLM), and starch accumulation in leaves. Reduced root respiration activity in high-P plants was presumably due to differences in root architecture resulting in proportionately fewer root apices in high P. Daily CO2 assimilation, shoot biomass, SLM, and root:shoot ratio were similar in plants grown with adequate-P and high-P availability, although plant P accumulation increased with P availability. Our results suggest that the excessive P fertilization often used in ornamental production systems is detrimental to root activity.
D.G. Mortley, C.K. Bonsi, W.A. Hill, and C.E. Morris
`Georgia Red' peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) was grown hydroponically at 20/16 °C, 24/20 °C, 28/24 °C, and 32/28 °C, day/night air temperatures to evaluate effects on pod and seed yield, flowering, harvest index, and oil content. Ten-day-old peanut seedlings were transplanted into rectangular nutrient film technique troughs (0.15 × 0.15 × 1.2 m) and grown for 110 days. Growth chamber conditions were as follows: photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) mean of 436 μmol·m-2·s-1, 12 h light/12 h dark cycle, and 70% ± 5% relative humidity. The nutrient solution used was a modified half-Hoagland with pH and electrical conductivity maintained between 6.5 to 6.7, and 1000 to 1300 μS·cm-1, respectively, and was replenished weekly. Vegetative growth (foliage, stem growth, total leaf area, and leaf number) was substantially greater at increasingly warmer temperatures. Reproductive growth was significantly influenced by temperature. Flowering was extremely sensitive to temperature as the process was delayed or severely restricted at 20/16 °C. The number of gynophores decreased with temperature and was virtually nonexistent at the lowest temperature. Pod yield increased with temperatures up to 28/24 °C but declined by 15% at the highest temperature (32/28 °C). Seed yield, maturity, and harvest index were highest at 28/24 °C. Oil content (percent crude fat) increased an average of 23% and was highest at the warmest temperature (32/28 °C). These results clearly suggest that vegetative and reproductive growth, as well as oil content of peanut in controlled environments, are best at warmer temperatures of 28/24 °C to 32/28 °C than at cooler temperatures of 20/16 °C to 24/20 °C.
Hening Hu and Darrell Sparks
The effect of Zn deficiency on reproductive growth of `Stuart' pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] was studied. At the most severe Zn-deficiency level, shoots were rosetted and produced neither. staminate nor pistillate inflorescences. At less severe Zn-deficiency levels, catkin length and weight decreased as Zn concentration in the leaf decreased. The number of fruits produced per shoot was reduced by Zn deficiency. Even though fruit abortion was not affected by Zn status of the shoot, fruit death and drying in situ increased with increasing Zn deficiency. Zinc deficiency dramatically suppressed fruit development and resulted in delayed and staggered shuck dehiscence.
Justine E. Vanden Heuvel and Carolyn J. DeMoranville
Competition between fruit and upright growth in cranberry has not been previously studied, but negative correlations reported between upright length/dry weight and yield indicate that sink demand from vegetative tissues may reduce fruit production. `Stevens', `Howes', and `Early Black' uprights and fruit were collected on either a weekly or bi-weekly basis through the growing seasons of 2002–04. The data indicated a shifting of resource allocation from leaf area and dry weight accumulation to fruit growth when about 1500 growing degree days (GDD, base 4.5 °C) had accumulated. Following the initial surge in fruit growth, leaf area and dry weight accumulation resumed at roughly 2300 GDD, resulting in a competition for resources with the developing fruit until after 3000 GDD. A lag phase in fruit diameter and dry weight accumulation was noted in some cultivars in some years, and may be partially due to the resumption of leaf growth. Roots, uprights, and fruit may all compete for resources during the hottest portion of the growing season.