reproductive organ of angiosperms. The development of anthers, the parts of the stamen where pollen is produced, is a delicate and complex process that includes the formation of the anther wall tissue (with a protective function) and pollen (with a reproductive
Weiping Zhong, Zhoujun Zhu, Fen Ouyang, Qi Qiu, Xiaoming Fan, and Deyi Yuan
Michele R. Warmund, David H. Trinklein, Mark R. Ellersieck, and Reid J. Smeda
, and the number live and aborted flowers and buds were recorded at 4 WAT. The number of live reproductive organs (flower buds and flowers) were then calculated. Flowers that withered without setting a fruit were considered aborted. Throughout the study
Sylvia Letícia Oliveira Silva, Renato de Mello Prado, Gilmara Pereira da Silva, Gabriel Barbosa da Silva Júnior, Monica Lanzoni Rossi, and Leónides Castellanos González
caused greater harm to the growth of roots and reproductive organs than to leaf and stem development. This nutritional disorder induced cell alterations such as middle lamella thickening and starch accumulation in leaf chloroplasts. Combining B and
Yuanyuan Miao, Qiaosheng Guo, Zaibiao Zhu, Xiaohua Yang, Changlin Wang, Yuan Sun, and Li Liu
( Bing et al., 2008 ; Miao et al., 2015 ). The stolon is one of the main asexual reproductive organs of T. edulis and has unique morphology. It is similar to a rhizome in appearance, but it has no visible node, internode, or adventitious roots (ARs
Petra Wolters, Wanda Collins, and J.W. Moyer
The establishment of a sweet potato repository in Georgia that will eventually accept and distribute true seed of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] raised the question of seed transmission of viruses, especially of sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV). Seedlings obtained from virus-infected parent plants were free of viral infection. Examination of virus distribution in virus-infected plants determined that SPFMV was present in vegetative tissue, but not in reproductive organs, indicating that the probability of SPFMV transmission in sweet potato through seed is very low.
Y.H. Huang, C.E. Johnson, and M.D. Sundberg
Floral morphology and differentiation of `Sharpblue' southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) were studied under natural growing conditions. There was no rest period during floral development of `Sharpblue' blueberry in Louisiana. Basal florets were already present within a racemic inflorescence in early September. All floral and reproductive organs were clearly visible in early December. Microspores and pollen grains were observed in mid- and late-January, respectively. Megasporocytes, two-cell, four-cell, and seven-cell embryo sacs were found to be simultaneously present in developing ovules in late January, suggesting that megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis in `Sharpblue' blueberry are asynchronous.
Mosbah M. Kushad, Andrea R. Orvos, and George Yelenosky
Several stages of citrus (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck. cv. Valencia) flowers, from very small bud (stage 1) to anthesis (stage 6), were evaluated for free and conjugated polyamines. The concentration of putrescine and spermidine synthesis increased markedly during the early stages, and then declined as the flower buds grew. At anthesis, putrescine and spermidine concentrations had increased significantly. Spermine concentration was very low and showed no significant change during the first three floral developmental stages; however, by stages 5 and 6, spermine concentration showed a slight but significant increase. Eighty percent of the total polyamine content in fully developed flowers is localized in the reproductive organs and only 20% is localized in the petals and the calyx. This study relates changes in conjugated and free polyamines to citrus flower growth.
Nancy Ruiz-Lau, Fátima Medina-Lara, Yereni Minero-García, Luis W. Torres-Tapia, Sergio R. Peraza-Sánchez, and Manuel Martínez-Estévez
Capsaicinoids, the chemical compounds that confer the pungency trait to peppers, are accumulated at different levels in all species of the genus Capsicum. There is much evidence suggesting that the synthesis of capsaicinoids occurs in the placenta interlocular septum of pepper fruits; however, the exact localization of the capsaicinoids biosynthesis accumulation pathways is still under debate. Thus, the aim of the present work was to evaluate whether pepper plants synthesize or accumulate capsaicinoids in vegetative organs as an indirect way to elucidate the systemic regulation of the capsaicinoid biosynthesis. For that purpose, we studied habanero pepper grown in the Yucatan Peninsula, which is among the hottest pepper worldwide. Our results, obtained by chromatographic and enzymatic measurements, provide solid evidence that habanero pepper plants do not accumulate capsaicinoids in the vegetative organs analyzed, even under water stress conditions. Thus, it is probable that the accumulation of capsaicinoids is restricted to reproductive organs.
Katy M. Rainey and Phillip D. Griffiths
The genetic basis for heat tolerance during reproductive development in snap bean was investigated in a heat-tolerant × heat-sensitive common bean cross. Parental, F1, F2, and backcross generations of a cross between the heat-tolerant snap bean breeding line `Cornell 503' and the heat-sensitive wax bean cultivar Majestic were grown in a high-temperature controlled environment (32 °C day/28 °C night), initiated prior to anthesis and continued through plant senescence. During flowering, individual plants of all generations were visually rated and scored for extent of abscission of reproductive organs. The distribution of abscission scores in segregating generations (F2 and backcrosses) indicated that a high rate of abscission in response to heat stress was controlled by a single recessive gene from `Majestic'. Abscission of reproductive organs is the primary determinant of yield under heat stress in many annual grain legumes; this is the first known report of single gene control of this reaction in common bean or similar legumes. Generation means analysis indicated that genetic variation among generations for pod number under heat stress was best explained by a six-parameter model that includes nonallelic interaction terms, perhaps the result of the hypothetical abscission gene interacting with other genes for pod number in the populations. A simple additive/dominance model accounted for genetic variance for seeds per pod. Dominance [h] and epistatic dominance × dominance [l] genetic parameters for yield components under high temperatures were the largest in magnitude. Results suggest `Cornell 503' can improve heat tolerance in sensitive cultivars, and heat tolerance in common bean may be influenced by major genes.
Ebenezer Oluwafemi Olapade*, Ebenezer Oluwafemi Olapade Jr., Clement Akinlayo Oluwadayomi Olapade, Christiana Oluwabusayo Olapade, and John Babajide Olapade
Women normally have two ovaries as part of their reproductive organs. The ovaries function by secreting the important reproductive hormone—estrogen which regulate the monthly menstrual cycle at puberty. Each ovary also produce the eggs that carry the female gametes required to fuse with the male sperm cells in the formation of foetus. One of the abnormalities of the ovaries that had been long recognized is the development of sacs with membranous wall enclosing fluid, semi-solid matter or altered blood described as ovarian cyst which alter the size of the ovaries and make them larger. This abnormality usually disorganize the regular monthly cycles along with other complications including pains and infertility in women. The causes for the development of ovarian cysts are not clearly understood while surgical operation had been the most popular method of treatment. There is ethno-medicinal evidence for the treatment of ovarian cysts in Nigeria which dates back to more than one hundred years This paper describes how 274 of clinically confirmed cases of ovarian cysts in women between the ages of 22-52 years were treated successfully without surgery at the NARL specialist clinic, Ibadan, Nigeria in the last 16 years (1988-2004) using natural plant medicines made with the fiber of Cocos nucifera and a few other tropical plants. The implications of this finding are discussed.