Golf course renovation is tremendously popular as an alternative to new course construction throughout the nation ( Park and Landschoot, 2003 ). To begin that renovation, most courses seek a method to eliminate existing plants and seeds to start
Jacob S. Bravo, Thomas Okada Green, James R. Crum, John N. Rogers III, Sasha Kravchenko and Charles A. Silcox
Thomas O. Green, Alexandra Kravchenko, John N. Rogers III and Joseph M. Vargas Jr.
renovation practices. Recently, golf course renovations have peaked because of aging and functionally deficient components such as putting greens ( Jones, 2019 ), and five principles usually dictate a renovation: major turf loss resulting from abiotic and
Aaron J. Patton, David W. Williams and Zachary J. Reicher
Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) requires few inputs and provides high-quality turf in the transition zone, but is expensive to sprig or sod. Establishment by seed is less expensive than vegetative establishment, but little is known about renovation of existing turf to zoysiagrass using seed. Two experiments were performed to determine effects of herbicides and seeding rates on establishment of zoysiagrass in Indiana and Kentucky. In the first experiment, interseeding zoysiagrass into existing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) without the use of glyphosate before seeding resulted in 2% zoysiagrass coverage 120 days after seeding (DAS). In plots receiving glyphosate before seeding, zoysiagrass coverage reached 100% by 120 DAS. In the second experiment, MSMA + dithiopyr applied 14 days after emergence (DAE) or MSMA applied at 14+28+42 DAE provided the best control of annual grassy weeds and the greatest amount of zoysiagrass establishment. Applying MSMA + dithiopyr 14 DAE provided 7% less zoysiagrass coverage compared to MSMA applied 14 DAE at one of the four locations. Increasing the seeding rate from 49 kg·ha-1 to 98 kg·ha-1 provided 3% to 11% more zoysiagrass coverage by the end of the growing season at 3 of 4 locations. Successful zoysiagrass establishment in the transition zone is most dependent on adequate control of existing turf using glyphosate before seeding and applications of MSMA at 14+28+42 DAE, but establishment is only marginally dependent on seeding rates greater than 49 kg·ha-1. Chemical names used: N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine (glyphosate); monosodium methanearsenate (MSMA); S,S-dimethyl 2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-(triflurormethyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarbothioate (dithiopyr).
Bernadine C. Strik, Neil Bell and Gina Koskel
`Redcrest' plants were renovated at 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 weeks after harvest (WAH) from July 1 to Aug 26, 1992 and July 7 to Sept 1, 1993, plus an unrenovated control. Data on fall yield, maximum cold hardiness, and summer yield and berry weight were collected. For maximum cold hardiness, crowns were subjected to controlled freezing (-8, -11, -14, -17 or -20°C) and then evaluated by oxidative browning. Fall yield in 1993 was greater than in 1992. In 1992, fall yield was comparable for all renovation dates except the latest, 10 WAH. Unrenovated plants tended to have a lower fall yield than renovated plants. In 1993, plants renovated 2, 4, or 6 WAH had higher yields than control or late-renovated plants. Fall yield was not correlated with summer yield in 1993. Plants renovated 4 WAH had a higher summer yield in 1993 than unrenovated plants or those renovated at other times, which all had similar yields. Date of renovation had no effect on berry weight or percent fruit rot. Unrenovated plants and those renovated 2 or 4 WAH were hardier in winter 1992/93 than those renovated later.
Peter R. Probasco, Stephen A. Garrison and Joseph A. Fiola
Chandler strawberries were planted on plastic mulch in September and renovated at various times after harvest during the next summer. Renovation treatments included mowing, thinning to three crowns/plant, and mowing plus thinning. These treatments were applied to 1-year-old and 2-year-old beds of `Chandler' strawberries. We conducted this study over two harvest seasons to compare winter conditions and the influence of polyester rowcovers. The second harvest season had severe winter temperatures (–5F), along with frequent ice accumulation. Marketable yields, culls, and fruit size were determined from each treatment. Yields varied with the time of treatment and with the degree of winter severity. Fruit size of renovated berries was smaller than first year berries, but still marketable. Polyester covers increased early yields.
Kevin M. Miele, Jason J. Henderson and John C. Inguagiato
questions regarding optimal renovation procedures and low tolerance for disruption of play during renovation ( Skorulski, 2013 ). Establishing new cultivars into established turfgrass stands has been shown to be improved by first eliminating the existing
Bruce E. Branham, Glenn A. Hardebeck, Joseph W. Meyer and Zachary J. Reicher
Annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is an invasive weed producing copious amounts of viable seed that compete with seedling turfgrasses during renovation. These field studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of dazomet (tetrahydro-3,5-dimethyl-2H-1,3,5-thiadiazine-2-thione), a granular soil sterilant that breaks down in soil to release methyl isothiocyanate (MITC), for controlling the soil seed bank of annual bluegrass during turfgrass renovation. Field trials in Urbana, Ill., and West Lafayette, Ind., in Spring and Fall 2000 and 2001 evaluated dazomet rate from 0 to 504 kg·ha-1 and soil preparation techniques to determine the most effective practices to reduce annual bluegrass reestablishment into a creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) seeding. The interval, in days, between dazomet application and creeping bentgrass planting was also examined to determine the optimal seeding time as measured by the level of annual bluegrass reestablishment. Spring trials generally gave poor results that were attributed to windy conditions resulting in rapid loss of MITC. The annual bluegrass soil seed bank was reduced 46% in spring trials compared to 78% in fall trials. Increasing dazomet rates reduced the absolute number of viable annual bluegrass seeds remaining in the soil. However, significant quantities of viable seed remained, regardless of dazomet rate. Annual bluegrass infested the renovated turf in all trials to varying degrees. Dazomet rates of 420 or 504 kg·ha-1 yielded the lowest rates of annual bluegrass reestablishment. Trials conducted in the fall at these rates resulted in annual bluegrass cover of 1% to 20% in the resulting turf. Creeping bentgrass planted at 1 day after dazomet application had significantly less annual bluegrass than when seeded at 7 or 9 days after dazomet application. Dazomet is a tool that can help reestablish a new turf with lower levels of annual bluegrass. However, eradication of annual bluegrass with dazomet is not likely and environmental conditions will dramatically affect the success of the sterilization.
Jared. A. Hoyle, Gerald M. Henry, Travis Williams, Aaron Holbrook, Tyler Cooper, Leslie L. Beck and Andrew J. Hephner
from stress ( Beard, 1973 ; Youngner, 1961 ); however, this may also make it difficult to control during conversion to buffalograss. Traditional renovation practices usually involve the desiccation of existing turfgrass through the application of a non
Donald R. Hodel and Dennis R. Pittenger
The objectives of this study were to investigate the responses of several groundcovers to periodic mowing and determine which ones benefit from mowing in terms of aesthetic quality, density, height and thatch development.
Eight species were transplanted on 30 cm centers in September. Five species had become fully grown in 10 months and were mowed to either a 5 cm or 10 cm height. Four species received a second mowing at 10 cm 8 or 11 months later. The remaining three species became fully grown in 18 or 21 months and were mowed at 10 cm at that time. Visual quality scores were recorded monthly, as were average overall plant and thatch heights. Lantana, Osteospermum and Verbena expressed little or no long-term loss in visual quality, while their height and thatch growth were controlled well when mowed in the spring-summer period. Height and thatch growth were controlled well in Drosanthemum and Aptenia, but visual quality was unacceptable. Spring mowing appears to produce reductions in height and thatch with no significant loss in quality of Myoporum and Baccharis but with significant loss in quality of Rosemarinus.