Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 178 items for :

  • "remobilization" x
  • Refine by Access: All x
Clear All
Free access

S.P. Castagnoli, T.M. DeJong, S.A. Weinbaum, and R.S. Johnson

Premature defoliation of peach and nectarine (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees resulting from foliar applications of ZnSO4 reduced N remobilization that typically occurs during leaf senescence. Leaf N remobilization in unsprayed control trees ranged from 45% to 50%, irrespective of tree N status. Leaf N remobilization in trees receiving foliar applications of ZnSO4 ranged from a positive influx of N into the leaf to ≈30% of the N remobilized, depending on ZnSO4 application timing and method of expressing leaf N levels. Early ZnSO4 applications resulted in less N remobilization. Measuring leaf N on an area basis was a more precise indicator of N remobilization than N per unit dry weight, because leaf weight per unit area changes during leaf senescence.

Free access

Theoharis Ouzounis and Gregory A. Lang

in trees during spring is supported by remobilization of stored N, so they do not depend wholly on N supplied by current-year root uptake ( Millard, 1996 ). Zavalloni (2004) found that sweet cherries absorbed little soil N before budbreak, even up

Free access

H. Khemira, T. Righetti, and A. Azarenko

Remobilization of reserve N and uptake of soil N in winter and spring were assessed in relation to the N status of trees. Ten-year-old `Newtown Pippin' apple trees on M.7A rootstock were fertilized to create moderately vigorous trees, trees with above-ground portions (tops) and roots relatively low in N (L/L), tops high in N and roots low in N (H/L), both tops and roots high in N (H/H), or tops low in N and roots high in N (L/H). Labeled (15N) fertilizers were used to tag the soil and frame and root N pools in the moderately vigorous trees prior to winter and spring remobilization. The level of 15N in the buds and new growth was monitored throughout winter and spring. Nitrogen stored in the aerial part of the tree was first to be remobilized to meet N requirements of the developing buds. Root and soil N reached the flower buds simultaneously. Trees of the L/H treatment transported labeled N upward to the bud as early as 9 Feb., even though average air temperature was close to 7°C, whereas L/L trees did not send any root-15N to the buds until 2.5 later. When trees received an abundance of N in the fall (H/H and L/H), their buds grew faster in the spring and they bloomed earlier compared with L/L and H/L trees. For root to shoot N translocation to start early (in winter), the bud needed to be low in N and the roots had to have adequate N reserves.

Free access

Denise Neilsen, Peter Millard, Gerald H. Neilsen, and Eugene J. Hogue

Uptake, recycling, and partitioning of N in relation to N supply and dry matter partitioning was determined for 3- and 4-year-old `Elstar' apple trees [(Malus sylvestris (L) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] on Malling 9 rootstock in 1994 (year 3) and 1995 (year 4), respectively. Trees received N yearly as Ca(NO3)2 at 20 g/tree applied on a daily basis through a drip irrigation system. The fertilizer was labelled with 15N in year 3 to allow quantification of remobilization and uptake. The trees were not allowed to crop in years 1 and 2 and were not thinned in years 3 and 4, thereby establishing a range of crop loads. Dry matter and N contents were measured in fruit, midseason and senescent leaves and prunings collected in year 3, in midseason leaves, and in components of the whole trees, harvested in fall of year 4. Labelled N withdrawn from leaves in year 3 was less than that remobilized into leaves and fruit in year 4, indicating that senescent leaves were not the only source of remobilized N. Nitrogen uptake efficiency (total N uptake/N applied) in year 3 was low (22.3%). Of the N taken up, ≈50% was removed at the end of the growing season in fruit and leaves. In fall of year 4, the trees contained about 20 g N of which 50% was partitioned into leaves and fruit, indicating that the annual N uptake by young dwarf apple trees is low (≈10 g/tree). Data were pooled to compare dry matter and N partitioning into two major sinks: fruit and shoot leaves. Total fruit dry weight increased, and in year 4, fruit size decreased with fruit number, indicating that growth was carbon (C) limited at high crop loads. The number of shoot leaves initiated in both years was unaffected by fruit number, but leaf size decreased as fruit number increased in year 4. In year 3, the amount of both remobilized and root-supplied N in fruit increased with fruit number, but the N content of the shoot leaf canopy was unaffected. In general, N and C partitioning were coupled and leaf N concentrations were high (2.8% to 3.2%), suggesting that the low uptake efficiency of fertilizer N resulted because the availability of N in the root zone greatly exceeded demand.

Free access

G.A. Picchioni, Wayne A. Mackay, and Mario Valenzuela-Vázquez

apical mineral gains. Mineral remobilization efficiencies were expressed as a percentage reduction in mineral content between day 0 and day 6. Results Flower abscission and opening. An average of 6.4 ± 0.6 mature flowers per raceme out

Free access

Steven J. McArtney and David C. Ferree

Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) were covered with an 80% neutral shade cloth from flowering until harvest to investigate effects of shade on early season vegetative development in the year after treatment. Shading reduced root dry weight, the concentration of soluble sugars, and amino nitrogen in xylem sap at budbreak, and leaf area expansion in the following year. Dry weight of roots on both shaded and nonshaded vines declined by more than 50% in the first 3 weeks after budbreak and then began to increase, but still had not recovered to prebudbreak levels, 10 weeks after budbreak. Total leaf area per shoot was reduced in the year after shading due to both fewer and smaller leaves.

Free access

Muntubani D.S. Nzima, George C. Martin, and R.W. Breidenbach

Isothermal microcalorimetric measurements of metabolic heat rates of `Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) individual inflorescence buds, current-year and 1-year-old shoots were used to investigate the roles of current and reserve photosynthates in the abscission of inflorescence buds. In the early stages of development metabolic heat rates of individual inflorescence buds were two and three times those of individual current-year and 1-year-old shoots respectively. Individual shoot organs (1-year-old shoots, current-year shoots, and inflorescence buds) sampled from “on” trees had higher metabolic heat rates than similar individual organs sampled from “off” trees. Artificial shading of pistachio trees for 14 days in early June depressed metabolic heat rates of individual inflorescence buds within 24 h, but there was a delay of 4 days before the decline in metabolic heat rates of individual current-year and 1-year-old shoots. This suggests that metabolic heat rates of individual inflorescence buds apparently depended on currently fixed photosynthates.

Free access

Muntubani D.S. Nzima, George C. Martin, and Chic Nishijima

The objective of this investigation was to determine the dynamics of carbohydrate use as revealed by soluble sugar and starch concentration in leaves, inflorescence buds, rachises, nuts, current and 1-year-old wood, and primary and tertiary scaffold branches and roots (≤10 mm in diameter) of alternate-bearing `Kerman' pistachio (Pistachia vera L.) trees that were in their natural bearing cycles. Two hypotheses were tested. First, carbohydrate concentration is greater early in the growing season in organs examined from heavily cropping (“on”) than light cropping (“off”) trees. This hypothesis was affirmed as judged by soluble sugar and starch concentration in leaves, inflorescence buds, rachises, nuts, current and 1-year-old wood, and primary and tertiary branches and roots of “on” compared to “off” trees. Second, carbohydrate concentration remains high in “on” tree organs as the first wave of inflorescence bud and nut abscission occurs early in the growing season. This hypothesis was also affirmed. In fact, soluble sugars and starch remained high in “on” trees through full bloom FB + 60 days (FB + 60) as inflorescence bud and nut abscission occurred. In the persisting “on” tree inflorescence buds, sharp decreases in soluble sugars and starch were evident by the final sample date when “off” tree inflorescence buds contained a 13 times greater concentration of soluble sugars and starch than “on” tree buds. At that time, “off” tree inflorescence buds contained 50% more dry mass than “on” tree inflorescence buds. After FB + 60, “on” tree soluble sugars and starch declined in all organs as nut growth occurred. During the same time period, organs of “off” trees began to accumulate greater concentrations of soluble sugars and starch and exceeded concentrations measured in organs of “on” trees.

Free access

Muntubani D.S. Nzima, George C. Martin, and Chic Nishijima

Early fall (September) defoliation and late spring (early June) shading of “off” and “on” pistachio trees were used to test two hypotheses: that 1) fall defoliation would reduce carbohydrate storage sufficiently to suppress spring growth and 2) spring shading would reduce carbohydrate status and increase inflorescence bud abscission. Defoliation suppressed initial leaf area expansion the following spring on current year shoots of “off” but not “on” trees respectively. Suppression of leaf size was correlated with the initial low concentration of carbohydrates in organs of individual branches of the tree. Fruiting and artificial shading in June had more dramatic effects on growth parameters than defoliating. Shading “off” trees for 14 days in early June accelerated abscission of inflorescence buds, reduced dry mass of individual leaves, buds, current year and 1-year-old shoots. Shading also reduced the concentration of total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) of these organs in “off” and “on” trees. Fruiting suppressed leaf size and leaf dry mass by 20% and 30% among individual branches of undefoliated and defoliated trees respectively. Low carbohydrate concentrations in individual branches and inflorescence buds following shading were closely correlated with the abscission of inflorescence buds.

Free access

Gerhard C. Rossouw, Jason P. Smith, Celia Barril, Alain Deloire, and Bruno P. Holzapfel

possible remobilization of sugars via phloem sucrose transportation ( Ruan et al., 2010 ) between the perennial vine parts (the roots and trunk) and the ripening berries, thereby contributing to berry sugar accumulation ( Candolfi-Vasconcelos et al., 1994