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John A. Cline and Eric J. Hanson

Abbreviation: RH, relative humidity. 1 Current address: Horticulture Research International, Crop Science-Perennial Crops Division, East Malling, Kent ME19 6BJ, England. 2 Associate Professor. We acknowledge the Michigan Agricultural Experiment

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Claire Adkison, Kelly Richmond, Nico Lingga, Veronique Bikoba, and Elizabeth Mitcham

activity have been discussed for many foodstuffs ( Nelson and Labuza, 1992 ). Multiplying the water activity by 100 yields the equilibrium relative humidity, describing how a substance equilibrates to the relative humidity of its surroundings. However

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Eric W. Kerschen, Caleb Garten, Kimberly A. Williams, and Melanie M. Derby

Environmental Research, Manhattan, to quantify the effect of root medium evaporation and plant transpiration on relative humidity. This layout was used for each of 12 runs of the experiment. All measurements are in feet; 1 ft = 0.3048 m. Test stand. The test

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Brian A. Krug, Brian E. Whipker, Ingram McCall, and Jonathan Frantz

Boron moves passively into plants from the roots to the shoots through the transpiration stream through the xylem ( Jones, 1991 ; Kochian, 1991 ; Kohl and Oertli, 1961 ; Raven, 1980 ). Relative humidity can be a major factor influencing the rate

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Dominique-André Demers, Martine Dorais, and Athanasios P. Papadopoulos

russeting was more severe in the summer than in the fall and spring seasons, suggesting a possible implication of climatic conditions [light, temperature, relative humidity (RH)]. Huang and Snapp (2004) found that shoulder check, a disorder similar to

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Scott B. Lukas, Joseph DeFrank, Orville C. Baldos, and Ruijun Qin

, therefore the water volumes to produce their saturated salt solutions were based on the LiCl calibration. Table 3. Desiccation chamber relative humidity (RH) calibration using saturated lithium chloride. The optimal RH level of 12.5% was obtained by adding 6

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Ahmad Shirazi and Arthur C. Cameron

The feasibility of controlling relative humidity in modified atmosphere packages using compounds possessing Type III sorption isotherm behavior was studied. Ten grams each of dry sorbitol, xylitol, NaCl, KCl, or CaCl2 sealed with one maturegreen tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit at 20C in simulated packages for 48 days resulted in stable relative humidities of ≈75%, 80%, 75%, 85%, and 35%, respectively. Relative humidity was a function of the ratio of chemical to fruit mass. Relative humidities within control packages were in the range of 96% to 100% throughout the experiments. A simple system that uses spunbonded polyethylene pouches for the application of this humidity control method to packages is described. The storage life of packaged red-ripe tomato fruit at 20C was extended from 5 days using no pouch to 15 to 17 days with a pouch containing NaCl, mainly by retardation of surface mold development.

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Jianhua Zhang and Miller B. McDonald

The accelerated aging vigor test subjects seeds to high temperatures (41°C) and relative humidity (about 100%) for short durations (usually 72 hours). These recommendations, however, have been developed for large-seeded agronomic crops and may be too severe for small-seeded flower crops that deteriorate rapidly during storage such as impatiens. We examined the effect of aging regime duration (48, 72, and 96 hours) and temperature (38 and 41°C) as well as relative humidity using three saturated salt solutions (KCl–87% RH, NaCl–76% RH, and NaBr–55% RH) on two commercial impatiens seed lots differing in seed vigor but not percentage germination. The greatest differences in percentage germination after 4 days were found among the treatments of 48 hours for KCl, 72 hours for NaCl, and 96 hours for NaBr. While any of these saturated salt solutions may be used in a commercial situation to determine impatiens seed vigor, we suggest that a total 7-day test period consisting of 72 hours aging at 41°C using saturated NaCl with germination being determined 4 days after aging is most convenient.

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Farida Safadi, Harrison Hughes, and Giuseppe Zerbi

Research involving acclimatization of in vitro plantlets by reducing the relative humidity (RH) in vitro requires a suitable method for monitoring RH in the culture vessels. In this research we describe a method for measuring the RH dynamically in the culture vessels, based upon thermocouple psychrometry. Thermocouple junctions (.003 mm gauge) were used with a wet cotton thread on the wet bulb junction inserted from the side of the jar. Aspiration was provided by tiny fans run by miniature motors left outside the vessels. Pre-calibrated aspirated and non-aspirated experiments showed realistically reduced RH in the cultures covered with caps which allowed for gas exchange. The aspirated procedure resulted in greater precision. This procedure with some refinement could be a useful method for monitoring RH in in vitro cultures.

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M. Landrigan, S.C. Morris, and K.S. Gibb

The effect of enzymic action, mechanical damage, and relative humidity (RH), on browning of stored rambutan was investigated. Mature rambutan fruit (`R 134') were infiltrated with known enzyme inhibitors, then either mechanically damaged or left undamaged, before storage at 20 °C with 95% or 65% RH. Fruit were visually scored for browning and weight loss was measured. All fruit at low RH browned severely. At high RH, infiltration with water, but not with the enzyme inhibitors, salicylhydroxamic acid and catalase, led to a large increase in browning. We infer that enzymes were involved in browning in damaged tissue under high RH. At low RH, inhibitors were ineffective as desiccation was the dominant causative factor of browning.