Firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC), starch index (SI), internal ethylene concentration (IE), and titratable acid concentration (TA) of `York Imperial' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) fruit changed linearly with harvest date between 152 and 173 days after full bloom (DAFB). Firmness was positively correlated with TA, SSC was correlated with SI, and SI was negatively correlated with TA. After 150 days of refrigerated-air (RA) storage, there was no relationship between DAFB at harvest and firmness or superficial scald, but the malic acid concentration declined linearly and storage decay increased linearly with DAFB. Firmness had declined to a plateau and was not correlated with any variable at harvest. Malic acid concentration after CA storage was correlated with DAFB, firmness, SSC, and SI; scald was correlated with firmness and SI; and decay was correlated with DAFB, firmness, SSC, and SI. During 150 days of controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage (2.5% O2, 1.0% CO2), firmness and TA decreased as a linear function of DAFB. Percentage of fruit with scald and scald rating changed quadratically with DAFB, and decay increased linearly with DAFB. After 150 days of CA, firmness was correlated with DAFB, SI, and IE at harvest; TA was correlated with DAFB, firmness, SSC, TA, and SI; scald was correlated with firmness and SI; and decay was correlated with DAFB, SSC, and scald index at harvest. During 250 days of CA storage, firmness, TA, scald, and decay changed linearly with DAFB in only 1 or 2 years out of 3. Formulas were created to predict firmness after CA within 10 to 12 N (2.0–2.5 lb-f) and TA to within 25%.
Morris Ingle, Mervyn C. D'Souza, and E.C. Townsend
Frank J. Peryesa and Stephen R Drake
Fruit growers and shippers have suggested that excessive rates of boron (B) in foliar nutrient sprays may reduce quality of stored apples. Foliar B sprays were applied by handgun in mid-July to bearing apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Starking) at rates of 0, 11.3,22.6 g B/tree. Fruits of uniform size (220 g) were analyzed for B content at harvest and for quality indices at harvest, after 10 days ripening postharvest, after 3 months refrigerated air storage, and after 8 days ripening poststorage. Whole fruit B concentration was directly proportional to B application rate. At all sampling times fruit firmness, soluble solids, titratable acidity, and internal and external color parameters were independent of whole fruit B concentration. Fruit disorders were unrelated to treatment except for internal breakdown after 8 months refrigerated air storage, which was positively related to whole fruit B concentration. Increases in fruit B were relatively greater in the core tissue, suggesting that some of the applied B entered the fruit through the tree vascular system.
Benjamin Paskus, Patrick Abeli, and Randolph Beaudry
-designed, laboratory-scale LPS system, RH can be maintained at levels exceeding 99.5% with no appreciable difference in water loss compared with properly managed, refrigerated air storage at high humidity. Despite the excellent performance at restricting moisture loss