Red pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.), which is used as a pungent spice in foods and food products for flavoring and coloring, is one of the most widely consumed vegetables in the world ( Garces-Claver et al., 2007 ). In South Korea, dried red pepper
Shiva Ram Bhandari, Bo-Deul Jung, Hum-Young Baek and Young-Sang Lee
Jae-Ho Lee, Hyun-Il Cha, Sang-Mi Moon, Kyoung-Shim Cho and Young-Sang Lee
Red pepper, as an ingredient of Kimchi, is an important horticultural crop in Korea, and capsaicinoid content is a major factor determining the pungent quality of red pepper. To clarify the factors affecting capsaicinoid content, 122 red pepper samples of 24 varieties were collected from 21 cultivation sites in Cheongyang area, South Korea, and their nordihydrocapsaicin (NDC), capsaicin (CAP), and dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) contents were evaluated by using an HPLC. The average content of NDC, CAP, and DHC were 4.8, 74.2, and 26.5 mg/100 g, respectively, and its relative composition ratios were slightly affected by variety or cultivation places. In most cultivation places, capsaicinoid contents showed significant dependence upon variety, in that cv. WangJangKum (225.5 mg/100 g) exhibited 6.2-fold higher total capsaicinoid contents when compared to cv. ChonHaTongIl (36.2 mg/100 g). Even the same cultivar (e.g., WangDaeGum) exhibited almost 2-fold variations according to cultivation places, indicating the dependence of capsaicinoid content of red peppers upon the cultivation sites. Analysis of variance revealed significant variety–cultivation place interactions in CAP, DHC, and total capsaicinoid contents, but not in NDC. This data suggests the necessity of more-careful selection of variety and cultivation place corresponding to the expected pungency of harvested red peppers.
Emily E. Braun, Sarah Taylor Lovell, Mohammad Babadoost, Frank Forcella, Sharon Clay, Daniel Humburg and Sam E. Wortman
soil nitrogen contributions and potential plant nitrogen uptake from abrasive weeding have not been quantified. The overall aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of abrasive weeding in organic sweet red pepper ( Capsicum annuum L
E. Zamora, P.W. Bosland and S. Thomas
The resistance of `Carolina Cayenne' (Capsicum annuum L.) to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood races 1, 2, 3, and 4 was measured. Egg counts from roots were used to determine the plant's resistance to M. incognita. Few eggs were observed on `Carolina Cayenne' roots, whereas all races of M. incognita produced numerous eggs on the susceptible `NuMex R Naky' roots. The results indicated `Carolina Cayenne' is a source of resistance to all known races of M. incognita.
Paul W. Bosland, Jaime Iglesias and Max M. Gonzalez
Yayeh Zewdie and Paul W. Bosland
Paul W. Bosland and Eric J. Votava
Seung Koo Lee
Kimchi is a kind of a spicy fermented pickle, and there are many varieties of kimchi depending on processing methods, seasons, and the availability of certain vegetables. Kimchi contains good amounts of nutrients and stimulates the appetite. The taste of kimchi is attributed to the unique blending and fermentation of ingredients. Detailed information about kimchi preparations and raw materials will be discussed. Various utilization methods of other horticultural products unique in Korea will be outlined. Types of processing include the salting, drying, and fermenting of fruits and vegetables. Soysauce, soybean paste, and red pepper paste are the important fermented products which will be summarized. Different types of traditional foods in Korea will also be introduced.
Jalapeños are versatile peppers with both green and mature-red peppers used fresh and in processed products. Peppers can be dried, pickled whole in brine or as salted mash for sauces. Mature fruit can also be smoked and dried to produce chipotle which can be used in several ways including preparation of sauces. Although there are many individual cultivars of jalapeño peppers available, little is known of their processing characteristics. Most food processors still rely on fresh-market supplies rather than contracting specific cultivars which might provide better processing characteristics. A study was begun in Summer 2005 at LSU to provide information concerning the processing characteristics of commonly available jalapeño cultivars. Over a 3-year period, each cultivar will be evaluated in fresh form, as pickled whole fruit, as salted mash and as smoked chipotle. Besides good cultural production qualities, pepper cultivars that will be manufactured into processed products should have 1) acceptable and consistent heat content, 2) good stable color and, 3) consistent/suitable size (for whole pack). Seventeen jalapeño cultivars were evaluated in fresh green, brine-cured green and mature-red state for fruit surface color, average fruit weight, dry weight, and percent seed.
Susan Lurie, Reuven Ronen and Beny Aloni
Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants were sprayed at full bloom with paclobutrazol (50 and 100 mg·liter–1), uniconazole (20 and 50 mg·liter–1), or mefluidide (20 and 50 mg·liter–1). Mature-green and red fruit were harvested 4 and 8 weeks after spraying, respectively. Paclobutrazol and uniconazole, but not mefluidide, affected plant growth and fruit morphology. All three growth regulators alleviated chilling injury that developed on green and red peppers after 28 days at 2C. Potassium leakage was lower from tissue disks, and weight loss less, from treated fruit than from control fruit. Ethylene and CO2 production at 20C were similar in control and paclobutrazol-treated fruit after 28 days at 2C. These results are consistent with previous findings that showed these growth regulators are able to increase tolerance to low temperatures in whole plants. Chemical names used: N-[2,4-dimethyl-5-trifluoromethyl sulfonyl amino phenyl acetamide] (mefluidide); (2RS, 3RS) 1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4 dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-pentan-3-ol (paclobutrazol); (E)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4 triazol-1-yl)-pentan-3-ol (uniconazole).