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Thomas E. Marler

The ability of plants to distinguish self roots and kin roots from non-kin roots is shown in the growing body of research on plant identity recognition. In many species studied to date, roots respond differently to roots of the same individual

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Bridget K. Behe, Patricia T. Huddleston, Charles R. Hall, Hayk Khachatryan and Benjamin Campbell

and brand in combination ( Behe et al., 2016 ; Collart et al., 2010 ). Prior research suggests that brand recognition positively influences purchase behavior ( Hoyer and Brown, 1990 ). Recognition of a brand, or anything else, can be defined as a mode

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Bridget K. Behe, Patricia Huddleston and Lynnell Sage

; Olson and Jacoby, 1972 ). Studies suggest that brand recognition influences purchase behavior ( Hoyer and Brown, 1990 ), with recognition of a brand or anything else defined as a mode of attention or “identifying something by its kind (name) and in view

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Laura A. Sanagorski and George E. Fitzpatrick

was to explore the feasibility of introducing structural defect recognition as a potential curriculum enhancement for sixth grade students. The second objective of this study was to evaluate two methods of teaching about this topic. Sixth grade is

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I.L. Goldman

Plants are the foundation for a significant part of human medicine and for many of the most widely used drugs designed to prevent, treat, and cure disease. Folkloric information concerning traditional remedies for disease has had inestimable value in establishing familial and cultural linkages. During the 20th century, modern medical science in the U.S. and other developed countries ushered in a new era focused on synthetic medicines. Even though many of these compounds were based on natural compounds found in plants, the drive towards synthetic pharmaceuticals created a knowledge gap concerning the health functionality of plants, crops, and food. Paralleling this development, biochemists and nutritional scientists pioneered the discovery of vitamins during the early decades of the 20th century. This research paved the way for dietary guidelines based on empirical data collected from animal feeding trials and set the stage for the current emphasis on phytonutrients. Three primary stages characterize the use of fruits and vegetable in human health. The first stage concerns the observation that many fruit and vegetable crops were originally domesticated for their medicinal properties. Making their way into the diet for this purpose, fruit and vegetable crops remained on the fringe from a culinary point of view. The second stage began when the role of vitamins became more widely understood, and fruit and vegetable plants were quickly recognized as a rich source of certain vitamins, minerals, and fiber. At this point, they became more than just an afterthought in the diet of most U.S. citizens. Cartoon icons such as Popeye made the case for the health functionality of leafy greens, while parents schooled their children on the virtues of carrots (Daucus carota), broccoli (Brassica oleracea), and green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). This renaissance resulted in large increases in fresh fruit and vegetable consumption across the country, a trend that continues to this day. The third phase can be characterized by the recognition that fruit and vegetable crops contain compounds that have the potential to influence health beyond nutritional value. These so-called functional foods figure prominently in the dietary recommendations developed during the last decades of the 20th century. In recent years, surveys suggest nearly two-thirds of grocery shoppers purchase food specifically to reduce the risk of, or manage a specific health condition. Evidence abounds that consumers, including Baby Boomers, choose foods for specific health benefits, such as the antioxidant potential of vegetables, suggesting high levels of nutritional literacy. Clinical and in vitro data have, to some degree, supported the claims that certain foods have the potential to deter disease, however much research remains to be conducted in order to definitively answer specific dietary-based questions about food and health.

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Cynthia Haynes and Cary J. Trexler

University-affiliated gardens enhance the teaching, research, and outreach missions of the university. Attracting and retaining volunteers is challenging but important for the success of most public gardens. The objective of this case study was to determine the perceptions and needs of volunteers at a university-affiliated public garden. In a focus group format, participants' responses were analyzed to determine the benefits of volunteering to both the participants and the university. Benefits were categorized into three groups: material, solidarity, and purposive. Material benefits are tangible rewards that are equated with monetary or resource gain. Solidarity benefits are social rewards from being in a group. Purposive benefits are rewards from achieving a goal or mission. This study documents the shift of volunteer motives from deriving purposive to solidarity benefits as the garden grew and expanded. Concomitantly, the goals of the university-affiliated garden shifted from purposive to material benefits. Our results confirm that garden volunteers are like other groups of volunteers in that they expect specific benefits for their participation, and their needs may fluctuate over time. Thus, a public garden may need to adjust reward systems to maximize the positive impact of volunteers. The university would benefit from an efficient support system to help volunteers meet their desire for helping the organization. To retain volunteers the university needs better training programs, a more flexible volunteer work schedule, and more recognition ceremonies. This study has implications for any institution that uses volunteer support to accomplish its mission.

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Rick Heflebower, Teresa Cerny-Koenig, Molly Waters and Ruby Ward

A cooperative program to recognize water-wise plants for Utah landscapes was developed by 10 horticulture and water organizations throughout the state. Representatives from each of the organizations met to develop a plant list containing woody and ornamental species that were attractive in the landscape, water conserving, adapted to the climate, and available in the industry. A yellow tag with the words “water-wise plant” outlined by the state of Utah was designed by the committee and used to identify the plants. Tags were provided at no cost to garden centers due to the funding of the organizations. A survey conducted at the end of the first season gave very favorable results. Sixty-seven percent of the participating nurseries indicated they would “definitely” participate in the program again, and 27% indicated they “probably” would participate. The Water-Wise Plant Tagging Program serves as a model of how universities, governmental agencies, and private businesses can work together to accomplish a common goal.

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Mark W. Farnham and Kent D. Elsey

Resistance of a Brassica oleracea germplasm collection (broccoli, Italica Group; cauliflower, Botrytis Group; and collard and kale, Acephala Group) to silverleaf whitefly (SLW; Bemisia argentifolii Bellows and Perring) infestation was evaluated using several measures of insect infestation (including adult vs. nymph counts) taken at plant growth stages ranging from seedling to mature plant. An initial study was conducted in an outdoor screen cage artificially infested with the SLW adults; subsequent field trials relied on natural infestations. The glossy-leaved lines (`Broc3' broccoli, `Green Glaze' collard, and `SC Glaze' collard) had low SLW infestations in cage and field tests. SLW adult counts were less variable than similar comparisons using nymphal counts, although adult and nymph counts were positively and significantly correlated at late plant stages. Based on this study, comparing relative SLW adult populations would be a preferred criterion for identifying B. oleracea resistance to this insect.

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Robert G. Nelson, Benjamin L. Campbell, Robert C. Ebel and William A. Dozier Jr.

names. This emphasizes the need to raise awareness and recognition of satsumas and their qualities outside of their immediate production region in the coastal counties. The first two studies were based exclusively on visual information and did not