Electrical impedance was used to determine the extent of tissue damage that occurred as a result of bruising of apple fruit (Malus ×domestica Borkh, cvs. Granny Smith and Splendour). Impedance measurements were made before and after bruising. Plots of reactance against resistance at 36 spot frequencies between 50 Hz and 1 MHz traced a semicircular arc, which contracted in magnitude after bruising. A number of characteristics of these curves were then related to bruise weight. The change in resistance that occurred as a result of fruit impact (ΔR50Hz) was the best predictor of bruise weight, with r2 values up to 0.71. Before bruising, resistance of fruit was higher in `Splendour' than in `Granny Smith' (P < 0.001), and at 0 °C than at 20 °C (P < 0.001), but was not influenced by fruit weight. The influence of apple cultivar and temperature on electrical impedance may cause difficulties when implementing these measurements in a commercial situation. However, further development of electrical impedance spectroscopy methodologies may result in convenient research techniques for assessing bruise weight without having to wait for browning of the flesh.
Phillipa J. Jackson and F. Roger Harker
Wayne Brown, Theo J. Blom, George C.L. Chu, Wei Tang Liu, and Lisa Skog
The sensitivity of easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum) to either ethylene or methane (products of incomplete burning in gas-fired unit heaters) was tested during rooting [3 weeks at 18 °C (65 °F)], vernalization [6 weeks at 6 °C (43 °F)] and subsequent greenhouse forcing (15 weeks at 18 °C). Starting at planting, easter lilies were exposed for one of seven consecutive 3-week periods (short-term), or for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, or 21 weeks starting at planting (long-term) to either ethylene or methane at an average concentration of 2.4 and 2.5 μL·L-1(ppm), respectively. Short- or long-term exposure to ethylene during rooting and vernalization had no effect on the number of buds, leaves, or plant height but increased the number of days to flower. Short-term exposure within 6 weeks after vernalization reduced the number of buds by 1 bud/plant compared to the control (no ethylene exposure). However, extensive bud abortion occurred when plants were exposed to ethylene during the flower development phase. Long-term exposure to ethylene from planting until after the flower initiation period resulted in only two to three buds being initiated, while continued long-term exposure until flowering caused all flower buds to abort. Short-term exposure to methane at any time had no effect on leaf yellowing, bud number, bud abortion, or height and had only a marginal effect on production time. Long-term exposure to methane from planting until the end of vernalization increased both the number of buds, leaves and height without affecting forcing time, leaf yellowing or bud abortion.
Jinsheng Huang, Paul R. Fisher, and William R. Argo
greater than 30% Ca and less than 5% Mg], dolomitic [CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 with less than 30% Ca and greater than 5% Mg], and dolomite [CaMg(CO 3 ) 2 with 22% Ca and 13% Mg]. When carbonate-based limestones react with acid from proton sources such as acidic peat
Sawyer N. Adams, Walter O. Ac-Pangan, and Lorenzo Rossi
citrus ‘US-942’ rootstock reacted to salinity, which has not been studied before ( Bowman and McCollum, 2010 ). Should ‘US-942’ rootstock react similarly to the other plant species that have been tested, the apoplastic barriers will develop closer to the
Patrick J. Conner
the wet and shade protocols were not significantly different from the standard protocol, so the standard protocol was chosen for further testing. A time period of 14 d PI was chosen to evaluate the inoculations so that slower-reacting, susceptible
Zhong-Bin Wu, Hsin-Mei Ku, Yuh-Kun Chen, Chung-Jan Chang, and Fuh-Jyh Jan
20 and 0.2% ovalbumin) to react with testing samples followed by the addition of alkaline phosphatase (AP) conjugated goat antirabbit immunoglobulin (Jackson Immuno Research Laboratory Inc., West Grove, PA) at 5000-fold dilution in conjugate buffer
Dustin P. Meador and Paul R. Fisher
and then treated with free Cl concentrations between 1 and 2 mg·L −1 Cl. With such a high N to Cl ratio, the majority of free Cl would therefore be expected to rapidly convert to chlorinated N forms. Chlorine also reacts with urea, although the chain
Edward J. Ryder
In crosses of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) between parents producing a mild or susceptible reaction to lettuce mosaic virus, a single gene segregated. The heterozygote reacted in an intermediate manner. In crosses between mild-reacting and resistant parents, the mild reaction gene and the resistant gene segregated independently. The resistant and mild alleles together produced a new phenotype that is usually symptomless. The gene symbol proposed is Mi'Mi, where Mi' gives the mild phenotype. Breeding is in progress to combine the mild and resistant traits in new lettuce cultivars.
Jeffrey H. Gillman and Carl J. Rosen
Phosphorus contamination of surface water is a growing problem associated with container production of nursery plants. Iron and iron compounds have the ability to adsorb phosphorus and render it immobile. Incorporating iron compounds into media at the base of nursery containers serves to filter out phosphorus from fertilizers while still allowing the plant to collect enough phosphorus to grow. Two experiments were devised. The first experiment examined how much phosphorus various iron compounds would adsorb. Metallic iron adsorbed the most phosphorus, followed by HCl reacted magnetite (a form of iron ore), Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and magnetite. In the second experiment, PVC tubes (4 cm inner diam.) were filled to a level of 5 cm with a phosphorus adsorbing layer containing growing media that was 25% or 50% by weight iron compounds. Compounds included metallic iron, HCl reacted magnetite and magnetite. Plain media was used as a control. A layer of 15 cm of media and slow-release fertilizer was applied above the adsorptive layer. One hundred milliliters of distilled water was applied to PVC tubes daily to simulate irrigation. Metallic iron reduced phosphorus leachate to almost 0 for over 2 weeks. HCl reacted magnetite was also effective in reducing phosphorus leachate. Magnetite only affected phosphorus leachate slightly.
Jinsheng Huang, Paul R. Fisher, and William R. Argo
Lime sources vary in their reactivity depending on particle size, surface area and crystalline structure, and chemical composition. Current horticultural practice for testing lime reactivity and the appropriate lime rate is through batch trials where lime is incorporated into growing media. Our objective was to test a laboratory approach that would provide a rapid analytical test on reactivity of lime sources, and could eventually be applied to measuring unreacted (residual) lime in container media. Four moles HCl was added to a lime sample, and the volume of CO2 released over time was measured in a burette. Three lime types were tested, including reagent grade CaCO3, and two pulverized dolomitic limestones used in horticultural media. 100% of CaCO3 reacted in less than a minute after acid addition, whereas only 79.8% and 49.5% of the two commercial lime samples had reacted after 10 minutes. The time required for 50% of the two commercial lime samples to react was 5 and 10 minutes, respectively, whereas it took 20 and 60 minutes, respectively, for 95% neutralization. Reaction rates in the laboratory test correlated with the time required to achieve a stable pH level when limes were incorporated into a peat substrate. The reagent-grade CaCO3 raised pH more rapidly (within 7 days) and to a higher level (maximum pH 7.5 at 9 g of lime per liter of peat) compared with the dolomitic lime sources. It may be possible to establish a lime reactivity index, for example, based on CO2 release after 10 minutes, and thereby provide a rapid screening of limes. Further gasometric analysis of lime types used in horticultural substrates is therefore needed.