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Marvin P. Pritts, Robert W. Langhans, Thomas H. Whitlow, Mary Jo Kelly, and Aimee Roberts

Floricane-fruiting (summer-bearing) raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) were grown outdoors in pots in upstate New York until mid-December when the chilling requirement was fulfilled. They were moved into a greenhouse and placed at a density that is three times higher than field planting. Bumble bees (Bombus impatiens Cresson) were introduced at flowering for pollination. Fruiting occurred from mid-February through mid-April, a time when the retail price for raspberries is between $3.00 and $6.00 for a half pint (180 g). Fruit quality was high, and individual 2-year-old plants averaged 11 half pints (2 kg) of marketable fruit. These yields and retail prices are equivalent to 19,000 lb and $142,000 per acre (21 t, $350,000 per ha). Raspberry production during winter allows growers to dramatically extend the harvest season and to produce a high-value crop at a time when greenhouses often are empty.

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Rachel E. Rudolph, Thomas W. Walters, Lisa W. DeVetter, and Inga A. Zasada

land suitable for red raspberry production, PNW growers commonly replant in the same location after removing the previous planting. After the last summer harvest, all trellising infrastructure is removed, canes are mowed, and the plant material is

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Brent L. Black, Tiffany Maughan, Christina Nolasco, and Blake Christensen

significant savings in tunnel and crop management while still providing horticultural advantages. Using a one-season or two-season tunnel could provide advantages for raspberry production at a lower cost than the three-season and four-season tunnel approaches

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Marvin Pritts

Primocane-fruiting raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) have the capacity to fruit in the fall and again the next summer. Because of their low chilling requirement, this type is used to produce a double crop in warmer regions of the world. However, many growers prune canes to the ground after the fall crop, sacrificing the summer crop for a single, large fall crop. This practice is less labor-intensive than the selective cane removal required for double-cropping and crop quality is often higher. Primocane-fruiting raspberries also are easily manipulated to extend the season. Early- and late-fruiting cultivars, cultural manipulations, rowcovers, high tunnels, and greenhouses are all used commercially to extend the season of primocane raspberries year-round. This is beneficial for consumers because high-quality fruit is now available for a much longer period than was possible in the past.

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Shengrui Yao and Carl J. Rosen

). For these reasons, there is very limited primocane raspberry production in northern Minnesota ( USDA, 2009a ), although the crop is one of high value. High tunnels have the potential to extend the growing season by several weeks in the spring and fall

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Michel Lamarre and Michel J. Lareau

From 1988 to 1990, the fall fruiting raspberries Heritage, Perron Red, Autumn Bliss and 3413-12 were field evaluated under two cultural systems: conventionnal production and production under plastic tunnel. The plastic tunnel was in place over 4 rows from early September to late October without supplemental heating. Compared to the conventionnal system, the tunnel contributed to a lengthening of 1 to 4 weeks in the fruiting period 2 years out of 3. In spite of the higher day temperatures, the rate of fruit ripening was not increased under the tunnel but fruit size was increased slightly. However, the latter did not translate in higher yield per day since fruit number decreased under the tunnel. Total yield increased only one year when the first killing frost occurred a full month before the second one. Generally, night temperatures were as low in the tunnel as those outside.

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Rebecca L. Darnell, Horacio E. Alvarado, Jeffrey G. Williamson, Bryan Brunner, María Plaza, and Edna Negrón

There is increasing interest in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) production worldwide due to increased demand for both fresh and processed fruit. Although the United States is the third largest raspberry producer in the world, domestic demand exceeds supply, and the shortage in fresh market raspberries is filled by imported fruit from Canada during July and August, and from Mexico and Chile during November through May. The raspberry harvest season is well defined and the perishability of the fruit limits postharvest storage. Winter production of raspberry in tropical and subtropical climates could extend the harvest season and allow off-season fruit production during periods of high market prices. The objective of the current study was to examine growth and yield of red raspberry cultivars grown in an annual winter production system in Florida and Puerto Rico. Long cane cultivars were purchased from a nursery in the Pacific northwestern U.S. in 2002 (`Heritage' and `Tulameen'), 2003 (`Tulameen' and `Willamette'), and 2004 (`Tulameen' and `Cascade Delight') and planted in raised beds in polyethylene tunnels in December (Florida) or under an open-sided polyethylene structure in January-March (Puerto Rico). In Florida, harvest occurred from ∼mid-March through the end of May, while in Puerto Rico, harvest occurred from the end of March through early June (except in 2002, when canes were planted in March). Yields per cane varied with cultivar, but ranged from ∼80 to 600 g/cane for `Tulameen', 170 to 290 g/cane for `Heritage', 135 to 350 g/cane for `Willamette', and ∼470 g/cane for `Cascade Delight'. Economic analysis suggests that, at this point, returns on this system would be marginal. However, increasing cane number per unit area and increasing pollination efficiency may increase yields, while planting earlier would increase the return per unit. The key to success may hinge on developing a system where multi-year production is feasible in a warm winter climate.

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Jo Ann Robbins

The growth, yield, and berry weight of nine June-bearing strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) cultivars (`Allstar', `Cavendish', `Honeoye', `Jewel', `Kent', `Mesabi', `Mira', `Northeaster', and `Winona') and six floricane fruiting (summerbearing) raspberry (Rubus idaeus) cultivars (`Algonquin', `K-81-6', `Lauren', `Nova', `Qualicum', and `Reveille') grown in southern Idaho were compared. `Cavendish', `Mesabi,' and `Winona' established quickly and maintained their spring vigor. Strawberry cultivars grew well during the summer but some cultivars had low spring vigor ratings. The most reliable yielding cultivars were `Cavendish' and `Mesabi' in spite of spring frosts, which damaged blossoms. `Mesabi' yielded best during a season where plants suffered spring freeze injury. Only `Mesabi' yielded above 6 tons/acre (2001). Spring freezing and relatively low yields are limiting factors in strawberry production in southern Idaho. Berry weight averaged 5.5 to 8.8 g in the second year of the study and may be too small for consumer acceptance and other commercial competition. `Cavendish' and `Mesabi' fruited earliest and `Honeoye' and `Winona' were latest. Raspberry shoot and cane growth was strong in all years. Over the course of the study, highest yielding in 2001 was `Nova' (7.65 tons/acre) and in 2002 `K-81-6' (10.4 tons/acre). In the second year of harvest (2002), all cultivars produced greater than the projected commercial production requirement of 3 tons/acre. Raspberry bloom occurred after the spring frosts. Berry weight was largest in `K-81-6' (3.3 and 2.5 g in 2001 and 2002, respectively) and smallest in `Algonquin' (1.8 and 1.5 g in 2001 and 2002, respectively). Early fruiting cultivars were `Nova' and `Reveille'.

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Rachel E. Rudolph, Lisa W. DeVetter, Chris Benedict, and Inga A. Zasada

practices that are central to the production of red raspberry in Washington State. Tillage is heavily relied on in the red raspberry production system before planting and after a planting has been established. From the time a planting is removed in the fall

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Rebecca L. Darnell, Horacio E. Alvarado-Raya, and Jeffrey G. Williamson

yields observed in perennial red raspberry production systems ( Alvarado-Raya et al., 2007 ; Darnell et al., 2006 ). This may be from disturbance of the root system during digging and shipment from the nursery, which can lead to significant root loss