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Xiaobo Zhang, Derong Su, Luyi Ma, and Yan Zhao

. Random amplified polymorphic DNA reaction system. Amplification reactions were performed on the basis of the protocol of Williams et al. (1990) with modifications. DNA samples were adjusted to 50 ng/μL and used in the amplification reactions with a

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Mohammed Elsayed El-Mahrouk, Yaser Hassan Dewir, and Yougasphree Naidoo

with short primers of arbitrary sequence has been demonstrated to be sensitive in detecting variation among individuals ( Rani et al., 1995 ). Fig. 2. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprint of mother plant (1) and acclimatized regenerants (2

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Justin A. Porter, Hazel Y. Wetzstein, David Berle, Phillip A. Wadl, and Robert N. Trigiano

unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean was used to generate dendrograms that showed similarity relationships among samples. Table 1. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers used for polymerase chain reaction and the number of amplification

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Xiao-min Liu, Xin-zhi Zhang, Yi-min Shi, and Dong-qin Tang

. Dendrogram based on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers illustrating the genetic relationship among the analyzed narcissi. Based on RAPD markers, the genetic similarity (GS) of the nine narcissi was analyzed further by the similarity matrix

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Antar Nasr El-Banna, Mohammed Elsayed El-Mahrouk, Mohammed Eraky El-Denary, Yaser Hassan Dewir, and Yougasphree Naidoo

. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA banding patterns of the 14 ornamental palm accessions using primers P1, P2, and P3. Lanes from 2 to 15 represent ornamental palm accessions nos. 1 to 14, Lane 1: DNA marker (1 kb). Band sizes of the marker are expressed in

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A.M. Torres, T. Millán, and J.I. Cubero

Five rose (Rosa spp.) cultivars were analyzed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Using eight primers, all cultivars were distinguished by comparing differences in DNA banding patterns. The RAPD technique fingerprints rose cultivars rapidly and inexpensively for identification and patent protection purposes.

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Stacey M. Sakakibara and John E. Carlson

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were evaluated for use in DNA fingerprinting of commercial Rhododendron cultivars. DNA was isolated from Rhododendron leaves and subjected to PCR amplification with single primers, 10 nucleotides in length, and of arbitrary sequence. Amplification products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining. Fingerprints were readily identifiable for a number of cultivars, and a high level of polymorphism was observed among clones of 10 rhododendron varieties. The technique was consistently reproducible in different trials using the thermocycler, between different thermocyclers, and using different DNA isolation from the same plant. This method will be applied to large-scale fingerprinting of Rhododendron cultivars and for distinguishing material propagated in tissue culture.

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Roger J. Sauve, Suping Zhou, Yingchun Yu, and Wolfram George Schmid

A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was used to identify and determine the phylogenetic relationships of 37 hosta accessions representing the major subgenera, sections and groups in the genus Hosta. Results of this study show that RAPD markers were able to differentiate not only the main groups, whose plants shared many genetic traits, but also cultivars within a species. Some accessions were identified by a single primer while others had high intercross linkage and required many markers for their separation. The phylogenetic clustering showed that H. plantaginea, the only night-blooming species, and H. ventricosa, the only known natural tetraploid, are unique and should be classified separately. The four species in the subgenus Bryocles, section Lamellatae H. venusta, H. minor, H. capitata, and H. nakaiana have very low genetic similarity since they do not share many amplified fragments. The other accessions were classified into four main clusters; cluster 1: H. venusta, H. tardiva, H. pycnophylla, H. tsushimensis `Ogon', H. montana, H. tibae, H. montana f. macrophylla, H. kikutii `Kikutii', H. longissima `Longifolia', H. rectifolia `Rectifolia', H. takahashii and H.`Undulata'; cluster 2: H. laevigata, H. sieboldiana, H. pycnophylla × H. longipes f. latifolia, H. longipes `Urajiro' and H. ibukiensis; cluster 3: H. capitata, H. kikutii `Polyneuron', H. nigrescens, H. kikutii `Yakusimensis', H. pachyscapa, H. kikutii `Caput-Avis', H. longipes f. latifolia, H. hypoleuca, H. okamotoi, H. densa and H. takiensis; and cluster 4: H. aequinoctiiantha, H. rupifraga, H. `Amanuma', H. minor and H. kikutii `Densa'.

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Patricia Sweeney, Robert Golembiewski, and Karl Danneberger

Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers from leaf tissue extractions are effective for discrimination of turfgrass varieties. The usefulness of RAPD markers for turfgrass variety identification can be enhanced by use of seed rather than leaf tissue for DNA extraction. To determine whether DNA extracted from turfgrass seed was suitable for amplification, DNA was extracted from bulk samples and individual seeds of bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], chewings fescue (Festuca rubra var. commutata Gaud.), Poa annua L., Poa supina Schrad., creeping bentgrass [Agrostis stolonifera L. var. palustrus (Huds.) Farw.], Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). All samples were successfully amplified using an arbitrary primer. Amplification intensity varied among species. With an almost infinite number of arbitrary primers available, it is likely that suitable primers can be found to amplify DNA from most turfgrass species. Amplification of turfgrass seed DNA, whether bulk or individual seed, is possible and should prove more useful than amplification of leaf tissue DNA for discrimination of turfgrass varieties.

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Feiga Gutman, Avinoam Nerd, Yosef Mizrahi, Dudy Bar-Zvi, and Dina Raveh

Twenty-four genotypes of marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra) were characterized using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. A distinct band pattern was obtained for each of the trees, using as few as four arbitrary 10-mer primers. Trees propagated vegetatively by grafting showed identical fingerprints. These results suggest that RAPD markers provide a useful system for documenting the identity of marula genotypes.