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Christopher Y. Choi and Gene Giacomelli

Newly formulated aqueous foam was tested in the field. The foam demonstrated the longevity necessary for practical field use. Soil temperatures beneath an insulation layer of aqueous foam were measured to determine the effectiveness of foam as soil mulch. Leaf temperature within a canopy was monitored to observe the modification of plant leaf temperature, and to evaluate the phytotoxic effects of foam applied directly to the leaf canopy. Leaves were not damaged after being covered with the foam for two weeks. The foam-protected soil was effectively insulated, and the aqueous foam proved to be an effective radiation shield against the cold night sky. Temperature differences as high as 5 °C (9 °F) were measured between the foam-covered and uncovered copper metal plates, which were used to simulate plant leaves. The foam covered plates were ≈80% as effective as the aluminum foil covered plates in reducing radiation heat transfer.

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Julie M. Tarara and Gwen-Alyn Hoheisel

temperature sensors demand low-cost, effective radiation shielding if they are to be useful in the many field studies that are conducted with limited resources. Proper shielding is critical for measurements recorded near the ground where vertical gradients

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Christopher Y. Choi, Werner Zimmt, and Gene Giacomelli

Aqueous foam was developed to serve as a barrier to conductive, convective, and radiative heat transfer. Through the use of a bulking agent, the physical properties of gelatin-based foam were more stable, adhesive, biodegradable, and long lasting. The phytotoxicity, possible environmental hazard and removal of the foam were also considered. Resistance to freezing-thawing, heating-evaporation, and wind were evaluated. Studies to determine the foam's long-term stability under field weather conditions were completed. The handling and performance characteristics of the foam necessary for development of this application were determined. Factors that affect the physical properties and the utilization of the foam were quantified. These included the proportions of the foam components, the mixing temperature of the prefoam solution, the application temperature, and the rate of foam generation. The newly developed foam might be ideal for freeze and frost protection in agriculture.

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Mark E. Uchanski, Kulbhushan Grover, Dawn VanLeeuwen, and Ryan Goss

surface to record air temperatures. Soil temperature probes were buried horizontally both inside and outside the hoop house. All air temperature sensors were inserted vertically into a solar radiation shield (RS3 solar radiation shield; Onset Computer Corp

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Steven McArtney, Duane Greene, Terence Robinson, and James Wargo

( i button model DS1921G; Maxim Integrated, San Jose, CA) were programmed to record temperatures at 10-min intervals and placed in a solar radiation shield (model RS3; Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA) attached to the trunk of one tree at either end

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Darren J. Hayes and Bryan J. Peterson

fertilizer would not continue to grow. Temperature on the bench was logged using a Watchdog 1450 micro station with radiation shield (Spectrum Technologies, Aurora, IL) positioned at plant canopy level. The temperature measured over days and nights averaged

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Kellie J. Walters and Christopher J. Currey

) in a solar radiation shield (RS3; Onset Computer Corporation). A photosynthetic photon flux ( PPF ) of 378 ± 8 µmol·m −2 ·s −1 was provided by fluorescent lamps for 16 h per day and measured every 15 s with an amplified quantum sensor (SQ-222; Apogee

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Madhumita Dash, Lisa K. Johnson, and Anish Malladi

uncovered. Temperature within the canopy of the shaded and control branches was recorded using sensors placed inside radiation shields. The average daily temperature during the period of the experiment was 18.9 ± 0.6 °C and 18.6 ± 0.7 °C within the branches

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Mark E. Uchanski, Dawn M. VanLeeuwen, Steven J. Guldan, Constance L. Falk, Manoj Shukla, and Juliette Enfield

were positioned vertically 1 ft above the soil in solar radiation shields that were mounted to wooden or metal stakes. At Alcalde, each shield was constructed from five 6.4-inch-diameter melamine plates (Thunder Group, Inc., City of Industry, CA

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Djamila Rekika, Katrine A. Stewart, Guy Boivin, and Sylvie Jenni

connected to a data acquisition system (Testo, model 177-T40, ITM Instruments, Quebec, Canada). The thermocouple sensor probes were housed in a radiation shield and placed in uncovered (control) and covered plots. Temperatures were recorded at 10-min