, 2014 ; Horvat and Senter, 1985 ), blueberries also contain different organic acids, including citric, quinic, malic, and succinic acids that contribute to their unique flavor ( Ehlenfeldt et al., 1994 ). Moreover, they are also known for the rich
Yifei Wang, Stephanie K. Fong, Ajay P. Singh, Nicholi Vorsa, and Jennifer Johnson-Cicalese
Mark K. Ehlenfeldt, Filmore I. Meredith, and James R. Ballington
The fruit of six highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars and eight rabbiteye (V. ashei Reade) cultivars and selections were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography for levels of the commonly found organic acids, citric, malic, succinic, and quinic. The two cultivar groups possessed distinctive patterns of relative organic acid proportions that could unambiguously separate pure rabbiteye and highbush clones in a principal component analysis. Highbush clones were characterized by high citric acid content, with percentages averaging 75% (range 38% to 90%). Succinic acid was the second most plentiful acid, averaging 17%. In contrast, rabbiteye cultivars and selections contained 10% citric acid, and no clone had >22%. Succinic acid and malic acid were found in greater quantities than in highbush, averaging 50% and 34%, respectively. Analysis of the fruit of seven albino-fruited highbush selections exhibited a profile similar to standard highbush cultivars, but with a citric acid average of <50%, and proportionally greater amounts of succinic and quinic acids. Given the differences in sensory quality of these four acids, it is likely that acid partitioning patterns can largely account for some of the perceived flavor differences between rabbiteye and highbush blueberries. Because several current breeding efforts involve hybridization between highbush and rabbiteye blueberries, a consideration of acid composition of breeding parents maybe worthwhile.
Yu Wang, Haobo Yang, Shuai Zhong, Xin Liu, Tong Li, and Chengwen Zong
contents detrimentally affect wine flavor ( Liu et al., 2006 ; Poll, 1981 ). Fructose, glucose, and sucrose are the main soluble sugars ( Hirvi and Honkanen, 1983 ), whereas quinic acid, followed by citric and malic acids, are the main organic acids in V
Howard F. Harrison Jr, Trevor R. Mitchell, Joseph K. Peterson, W. Patrick Wechter, George F. Majetich, and Maurice E. Snook
other caffeoylquinic acids. Kojima and Kondo (1985) showed that 3,5-DCQA was formed enzymatically in sweetpotato from two molecules of chlorogenic acid (3-caffeoylquinic acid) producing a molecule of 3,5-DCQA and one of quinic acid. Islam et al. (2002
T. Wang, A. R. Gonzalez, E. E. Gbur, and J. M. Aselage
Babygold 5 (BG5) and Redhaven (RDH) peaches at maturity 4 were held at 2.3°C for 0, 2 and 4 weeks. After each cold storage treatment half of the fruit sample was evaluated; the other half was ripened for 8 days at 21°C and respiration was measured daily. The evaluations on both samples were for malic, citric and quinic acids, titratable acidity (TA), soluble solids (SS) and flesh firmness. Malic acid in ripened BG5 and RDH Fruits increased relative to their unripened counterpart over the cold storage time; citric acid increased in BG5, decreased in RDH; quinic acid decreased in both cultivars; TA increased; SS decreased in BG5, did not change in RDH; flesh firmness increased in BG5, did not change in RDH. Respiratory rate increased with cold storge time in both cultivars. Overall, BG5 showed more susceptibility to chilling than RDH.
J.B. Magee and C.L. Gupton
The organic acid composition of blueberries of three highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum) cultivars, three rabbiteye (V. ashei cultivars and nine southern highbush (V. corymbosun hybrids) cultivars or selections was determined by HPLC. Species means off the individual acids (citric, malic, succinic, and quinic), expressed as a percentage of total acid, formed profiles or patterns that are thought to be characteristic of the species. Citric (75%) was the predominant acid in highbush fruit with lesser percentages of succinic (13%), quinic (9.6%), and malic (2.7%). The percent composition of rabbiteye berries [quinic (49%), succinic (39%), citric (6.7%), malic (5%)] was distinctly different from highbush. The acid profile of southern highbush fruit reflected their V. corymbosum heritage with an acid profile similar to that of highbush. When related to a clone's pedigree, these results suggest that organic acid profiles may be a useful screening tool for studying the contribution of southeastern native species such as V. darrowi or V. ashei to the inheritance of organic acids.
James B. Magee
The southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium, mostly corymbosum) cultivars Jubilee, Pearl River, and Magnolia and the rabbiteye cultivars Climax and Premier were stored for 4 weeks at 1-2 °C. Berries were held in pint “clam shell” plastic retail units and were evaluated weekly for physical and compositional quality. As groups, the rabbiteyes were higher in SSC, SSC/TA, glucose and fructose, anthocyanins, and malic, quinic, and succinic acids. `Jubilee' was the southern highbush and `Climax' the rabbiteye least affected by the storage. `Pearl River' and `Magnolia' were less firm and more shriveled than the other cultivars. `Magnolia' had the highest incidence of decay; decay was slight overall.
Robert J. Horvat, Glenn W. Chapman Jr., and R. B. Russell
Variations in the levels of volatile constituents during maturation of peaches were determined by means of capillary gas chromatography. C6 aldehydes were the major volatile compounds isolated from immature fruit, however, as the fruit matured, levels of the C6 aldehydes decreased. The final period of peach maturation (120 to 126 days after flowering) showed significant increases in benzaldehyde, linalool, γ- and δ- decalactone; γ- decalactone being the principal volatile compound. The major volatiles, sucrose, quinic acid, and the malic/citric acid ratio, either singly or in combination, appear to be useful indices for estimating maturity of peaches.
David H. Byrne, Aleksander N. Nikolic, and Edward E. Burns
A wide range of color, sugar, and acid composition was found among 12 peach [Prunuspersica (L.) Batsch] genotypes. Among the high-acid genotypes, a trend of increasing Hunter `a' values, fructose, soluble solids concentration (SSC): titratable acidity (TA) ratio, and decreasing TA and citric acid levels was noted with decreasing mesocarp firmness. Mesocarp firmness was correlated with both skin and flesh `a' values within all genotypes. Among genotypes, the Hunter `a'/firmness relationship varied. `Elberta', a cultivar known to retain a greenish ground color, had a lower Hunter `a' value when soft than did more recent releases such as `Dixiland', `Redhaven', and `Suwanee'. `Sam Houston', a low-acid cultivar, had lower TA and malic, citric, and quinic acid levels than the other cultivars. The dominant acid for all genotypes was malic (50% to 60% of total) with about equal amounts of citric and quinic. Soluble sugars included sucrose (54% of total), fructose (31%), and glucose (15%). `Sam Houston' had lower SSC, a higher percentage of sucrose, lower levels of glucose and fructose, but the same relative sweetness values as the high-acid cultivars.
Ki-Cheol Son, Ray F. Severson, Maurice E. Snook, and Stanley J. Kays
Methanol extracts of external (outer 3 mm) and interior root tissue of four sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] cultivars (`Centennial', `Jewel', `Regal', and `Resisto') having different levels of susceptibility to the sweetpotato weevil [Cylas formicarius elegantulus Summer] were analyzed for simple carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, sucrose, inositol) and organic acids (malic, citric, quinic) by gas chromatography and for phenolics (caffeic acid, caffeoylquinic acids, rutin) by high-performance liquid chromatography. There were significant differences among cultivars in the concentrations of total sugars and phenolics in the external tissue (P < 0.05). In addition, the distribution of carbohydrates, organic acids, and chlorogenic acid [3-O-caffeoylquinic acid] differed between external and interior tissues. Sucrose was the major water-soluble carbohydrate in all cultivars. With the exception of malic acid, the concentration of carbohydrates, organic acids, and phenolics did not correlate with cultivar susceptibility to the sweetpotato weevil.