Two field studies (winter and summer) were performed to evaluate the effect of three different fertilizer programs and a urea formaldehyde resin foam (UFRF) soil amendment on sod establishment and anchorage. Fertilizer treatments involved were 1) a quick release (QR) granular fertilizer (12-12-17); 2) a slow release (SR) fertilizer (27-5-7); and 3) a foliar (FL) fertilizer (20-20-20). The application rate was 50, 30, 0.35 g·m-2 for QR, SR, and FL, respectively. The substrate consisted of sandy loam soil, and in half of the plots UFRF flakes were incorporated in the upper 100 mm at a rate of 20% v/v. The effects of the fertilizer and soil amendment on sod establishment were evaluated through measurements of the dry weight of clippings and roots and the visual quality of the turf. Sod anchorage was measured by determination of the vertical force required to detach a piece of sod. For each treatment the initial and final pH, EC, available P, exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Fe were also determined. It was found that FL reduced clipping yield but retained turf visual quality similar to the other fertilizer treatments except in winter, when it resulted in the worst quality ratings. However, FL fertilizer promoted root growth and provided high vertical detachment force values and therefore enhanced sod establishment. Slow release fertilizer resulted in moderate top growth and visual quality of the turf during winter, but delayed sod establishment. Quick release fertilizer increased top growth and improved turfgrass visual quality during the winter, but root growth and vertical detachment force were reduced, indicating poorer sod establishment. UFRF did not enhance sod establishment since there was a negative effect on root growth when temperatures were below 10 °C, without however affecting vertical detachment force. Differences in soil P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe between treatments were inconsistent between the two studies, except for final K concentration, which was higher for QR fertilization than SR and FL. Foliar fertilization can enhance sod establishment compared to QR and SR, by accelerating sod anchorage and root growth. QR can be used in late autumn to improve winter green up of the sod. UFRF does not improve or accelerate sod establishment and possesses a minimal capacity to improve soil properties of sandy loam soils.
Panayiotis A. Nektarios, Georgios Tsoggarakis, Aimilia-Eleni Nikolopoulou and Dimitrios Gourlias
Subhrajit K. Saha, Laurie E. Trenholm and J. Bryan Unruh
·m −2 K at 14 d after planting and were then allowed to establish for 6 weeks before treatments began. There were three fertilizer treatments: quick-release fertilizer (QRF) 16N–1.7P–6.6K (Lesco, Cleveland, OH) (ammonium sulfate, concentrated
Subhrajit K. Saha, Laurie E. Trenholm and J. Bryan Unruh
Due to increasing consumption of water in landscapes and concern over conservation of water resources, this study was conducted to determine the effect of fertilizer source on water consumption of turf and ornamentals and to compare total water use (WU) of st. augustinegrass and ornamentals. The experiment was performed in a climate-controlled greenhouse at the G.C. Horn Turfgrass Field Laboratory at the University of Florida in Gainesville. `Floratam' st. augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum Walt. Kuntze) was compared to a mix of common Florida ornamentals including canna (Canna generalis L.H. Bailey), nandina (Nandina domestica Thunb.), ligustrum (Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.), and allamanda (Allamanda cathartica L.). All plants were grown in 300-L plastic pots in Arredondo fine sand. There were three fertilizer treatments [quick-release fertilizers (QRF) 16–4–8 and 15–0–15, and slow-release fertilizer (SRF) 8–4–12] applied at 4.9 g N/m2 every 60 days. Water was applied as needed to maintain turgor and turfgrass pots were mowed weekly. Experimental design was a randomized complete block design with four replications. Visual quality ratings and time domain reflectometry (TDR) data were collected weekly. Both turf and ornamentals consumed less water and had higher water use efficiency (WUE) when treated with SRF. Ornamentals consumed from 11% to 83% more water than turf, depending on season. These results may have implications in future research on irrigation management to verify WUE between turf and ornamentals in an urban landscape.
David C. Zlesak, John A. Eustice and Cody L. Gensen
loam. The bed was mulched with ≈5 to 7 cm of hardwood chips, irrigated as needed (plants received at least 2.54 cm of water per week from either rainfall or irrigation), and fertilized at the recommended rate with a granular quick-release fertilizer (10
James W. Cross, Stacy A. Bonos, Bingru Huang and William A. Meyer
above the plants. Plants were watered biweekly or as soil surface drying was observed in a majority of the pots. Plants were hand-trimmed with scissors two times each week at a height of 7.5 cm. A 16.0N–3.5P–5.0K water-soluble quick-release fertilizer
Shawn T. Steed, Allison Bechtloff, Andrew Koeser and Tom Yeager
substrate to prevent season-long increases in salt levels. Another method might be to apply a low rate of a quick-release fertilizer or a short-term controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) combined with a greatly reduced rate of longer term CRF. An additional
Li Li, Xiaohong Yao, Caihong Zhong, Xuzhong Chen and Hongwen Huang
peaks: 1 month after flowering (April) and 1 month before fruit ripening (August) in Wuhan, Hubei Province. Application of a quick-release fertilizer in April and August enhances fruit growth. After harvest and before leaf abscission, fall applications
Richard O. Carey, George J. Hochmuth, Christopher J. Martinez, Treavor H. Boyer, Vimala D. Nair, Michael D. Dukes, Gurpal S. Toor, Amy L. Shober, John L. Cisar, Laurie E. Trenholm and Jerry B. Sartain
, etc.) was dependent on sulfur, polymer content, or both in coated fertilizers. The thickness and nature of polymer-coatings affect N-release properties ( Carrow, 1997 ). Slow-release N sources may reduce clipping yields compared with quick-release