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Lisa G. Neven

The presence or potential presence of internal feeding insects in tree fruits grown in the United States has caused the development and implementation of specific quarantine procedures to prevent the accidental introduction of these pests to areas

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Marisa M. Wall and Shakil A. Khan

tephritid fruit flies and therefore subject to quarantine restrictions. Hot forced air treatments have been proposed for dragon fruit disinfestation with minimal reduction in quality ( Hoa et al., 2006 ); however, irradiation generally is more efficient and

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Marisa M. Wall

Sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] roots of three Hawaii-grown cultivars (`Mokuau', `Okinawan', and `Yoshida') were treated with 0, 200, or 400 Gy x-ray irradiation and stored for 12 weeks at 15 °C. The storage quality of nonirradiated and irradiated roots was compared for weight loss, sprouting, firmness, color, postharvest decay, and carbohydrate concentrations. Nonirradiated roots lost 3 to 4% weight during storage, whereas roots treated with 400 Gy lost 4.7% to 8.6% weight. Sprouting was negligible for all treatments. Storage tended to increase root firmness, while irradiation tended to decrease firmness. When all cultivars were averaged, sweetpotatoes treated with 400 Gy and stored for 12 weeks had the lowest starch concentrations and highest total sugar concentrations. Glucose and fructose concentrations were not affected by irradiation, but these sugars increased during storage. Sucrose concentrations of roots irradiated with 400 Gy were double those of nontreated roots after 12 weeks storage. The purple-fleshed cultivars, `Mokuau' and `Okinawan', retained good quality following irradiation and storage, but firmness decreased somewhat for roots treated with 400 Gy. The `Okinawan' sweetpotato is the primary export cultivar from Hawaii. For the white-fleshed cultivar, `Yoshida', postharvest decay adversely impacted the internal color, firmness, and overall quality of roots treated with 400 Gy and stored for 12 weeks.

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Marisa M. Wall

provitamin A than Cavendish-type bananas ( Wall, 2006 ). Dwarf Brazilian bananas are limited in mainland U.S. and international markets because of quarantine restrictions. The fruit can be exported at the mature green stage under a nonhost quarantine status

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Jorge A. Osuna-Garcia, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Donald J. Huber and Yolanda Nolasco-Gonzalez

.7%, respectively, while for the control weight loss was 5.1%. Fig. 1. Cumulative weight loss of ‘Kent’ mango fruit treated with aqueous 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) with or without quarantine hot water treatment (QHWT). Data are means ± se (n = 10, except for A

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Harvey T. Chan Jr. and Eric Jang

Heat treatments have been used to control diseases and insect infestation of fruit. The development of heat treatments have been the result of empirical experiments based on the efficacy on the insects coupled with parallel experiments on the phytotoxicity of host fruit. Such heat treatments while approved as quarantine treatments have occasionally produced fruit of poor quality. Thermal processing of foods, an established science, employs kinetics of enzyme inactivation, thermal death times evaluation of various time-temperature relationships to determine the adequacy of the heat process to ensure the safety of the product as well as minimize over-processing to preserve the products quality. There is a need to develop thermo-processing guidelines in the development of quarantine heat treatments and also to enhance product quality. We will report methods that we have developed to determine the thermal death kinetics of insects, fruit pathogens and kinetics for thermotolerance of the fruit.

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Maria E. Monzon, Bill Biasi, Elizabeth J. Mitcham, Shaojin Wang, Juming Tang and Guy J. Hallman

Persimmon ( Diospyros kaki L.) fruit are host to various quarantined pests, including various fruit flies, lightbrown apple moth, and longtailed mealybug ( Dentener et al., 1996 ; Paull and Armstrong, 1994 ), which limit fruit export and

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Raymond G. McGuire

The market quality and condition of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) were compared after three heat treatments for quarantine control of Caribbean fruit flies [Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)]. Treatment by forced air at 48C for 3 hours was compared with immersions in water at either a constant 48C for 2 hours or with a gradual increase to 48C lasting 3 hours. The immersion at a constant 48C significantly increased weight loss and promoted injury and decay while reducing firmness and color intensity after 4 weeks of storage. By more slowly heating fruit in the gradient water immersion, weight, firmness, and natural color were retained, and injury was substantially reduced, but the incidence of decay remained high. No loss in quality resulted from treatment by forced hot air. These heat treatments had little effect on juice characteristics, although acidity was slightly reduced by each method of application. In taste tests, juice from fruit treated in water that was gradually raised to 48C was preferred over that of fruit treated at a constant 48C.

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J.D. Hansen, M.L. Heidt, M.A. Watkins, S.R. Drake, J. Tang and S. Wang

Efficacy of using radio frequency (RF) at 27.12 MHz was evaluated as a postharvest quarantine treatment against fifth instars of the codling moth [Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)], in apples (Malus sylvestris). Tests under the given conditions demonstrated that the energy fields between the RF unit's electrodes were neither predictable nor uniform. Moving fruit submerged in water during RF exposure may improve uniformity, but pulp temperatures varied considerably among fruit, among sites on the same fruit, and at different depths within the same site. As a result of these inconsistencies, quarantine efficacy was not obtained either using a range of final average temperatures from 40 to 68 °C (104.0 to 154.4 °F) or at holding times up to 20 minutes. We concluded it would be difficult to obtain the appropriate parameters for treatment efficacy and fruit quality maintenance using this technology under these conditions.

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J.D. Hansen, M.L. Heidt, M.A. Watkins, S.R. Drake, J. Tang and S. Wang

Quarantine regulations require domestic sweet cherries (Prunus avium) exported to Japan to be treated to control codling moth [Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)]. The current procedure, methyl bromide fumigation, may be discontinued because of health, safety, and environmental concerns. To examine a potential alternative method, `Bing' sweet cherries were each infested with a codling moth larva, submerged in a 38 °C water bath for 6 minutes pretreatment, then exposed to various temperatures generated by radio frequency and held at that temperature for different times: 50 °C for 6 minutes, 51.6 °C for 4 minutes, 53.3 °C for 0.5 minutes, and 54.4 °C for 0.5 minutes. Insect mortality was evaluated 24 hours after treatment and fruit quality was evaluated after treatment and after 7 and 14 days of storage at 1 °C. No larvae survived at the 50 and 51.6 °C treatments. Fruit color of non-infested cherries was darkened as temperature increased. Stem color was severely impacted after 7 days of storage, even in a warm water bath of 38 °C for 6 minutes, as was fruit firmness at the same treatment. Fruit quality loss increased after 14 days of storage, compared to after 7 days of storage. The amount of pitting and bruising of cherries increased with temperature and again this increase was more evident after 14 days of storage.