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Rakesh Kumar and Todd C. Wehner

were not observed within the F 2 segregating population. A test of normality ( Shapiro and Wilk, 1965 ) revealed that a normal distribution did not occur for fruit yield, fruit count, or fruit size in the F 2 population. This quantitative analysis

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Steven C. Wiest

A system for the digital analysis of photographic prints of turfgrass plots is being developed. The 3-year-old turfgrass plots included Meyer zoysiagrass, Midlawn bermudagrass, Prairie buffalograss and Mustang tall fescue. The plots were photographed by a camera with a small dual bubble level on the camera back and a 28-mm-wide angle lens. Photographs were digitized with flatbed scanners. The images can then be analyzed in a variety of ways. For example, a series of photographs were taken from mid-Sept. through late Oct 1995 and spectral analysis of the resultant digital images were made. The initial RGB (red-greenblue) format of the images was converted to HSI (hue-saturation-intensity) for analysis. The results indicate, obviously, that hue changed from 104 (i.e., green) to 75.7 degrees (i.e., brownish) between the beginning and end of Oct. 1995. Similarly, intensity changed from ≈0.12 to ≈0.16 during the same time period, indicating that the images became darker over time. These phenomena were observed in all four species examined. However, the saturation value evoked a significant species * date interaction. The three warm-season species showed a decrease in saturation, while Mustang had no significant decrease during Oct. Spectral as well as textural analysis are likely the two most useful techniques in the digital analysis of turfgrass plots. Examples of both will be presented.

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Mingyuan Xu, Yingwei Wang, Qianbo Wang, Shenglei Guo, Yang Liu, Jia Liu, Zhonghua Tang, and Zhenyue Wang

inhibited the photosynthesis of Eleuthero by limiting CO 2 and causing photodamage in medicinal plants ( Cornic and Massacci, 1996 ). Changes in medicinal compound. In the present study, the UPLC-MS method was successfully applied for the quantitative

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Elizabeth A. Baldwin, Myrna O. Nisperos-Carriedo, and Manuel G. Moshonas

Whole tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), cvs. Sunny and Solarset, were analyzed at 5 different ripening stages for ethylene and CO2 production. Homogenates from the same fruit were prepared for determination of color, flavor volatiles, sugars and organic acids. Of the flavor volatiles measured, only eugenol decreased during ripening in both varieties and 1-penten-3-one in `Sunny' tomatoes. Ethanol, and trans-2-trans-4-decadienal levels showed no change or fluctuated as the fruit matured while all other volatiles measured (cis-3-hexenol, 2-methyl-3-butanol, vinyl guiacol, acetaldehyde, cis-3-hexenal, trans-2-hexenal, hexanal, acetone, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, geranylacetone and 2-isobutylthiazole) increased in concentration, peaking in the later stages of maturity. Synthesis of some volatile compounds occurred simultaneously with that of climacteric ethylene and color. `Solarset' fruit exhibited higher levels of sugars and all flavor components except ethanol, vinyl guiacol, hexanal and 2-methyl-3-butanol in the red stage. There were no differences between these varieties for acids

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Xuelian Jiang, Yueling Zhao, Ling Tong, Rui Wang, and Sheng Zhao

To investigate the quantitative response of tomato yield and fruit quality to deficit irrigation applied at different growth stages, greenhouse experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2018. Three irrigation treatments (full irrigation and two-thirds or one-third of full irrigation) were applied to greenhouse-grown tomato plants at flowering and fruit development (stage 2) and at fruit maturation stage (stage 3). Grey relational analysis (GRA), the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS), and principal components analysis (PCA) were used to calculate the comprehensive fruit quality indexes, and combinatorial evaluation method was determined. The results showed that deficit irrigation significantly reduced evapotranspiration (ET) and tomato yield and that relative yield had a negative linear correlation with relative seasonal water deficit (1−ETi/ETc). However, deficit irrigation improved fruit quality, especially at stage 2. Total soluble solids, the total soluble sugar concentration, the sugar-to-acid ratio, and vitamin C in the tomatoes all increased significantly in plants that were deficit irrigated compared with fully irrigated plants, while organic acids and lycopene decreased in both years. There were linear correlations between fruit quality parameters and 1−ETi/ETc. The comprehensive quality index derived from GRA and PCA is reliable, and the comprehensive quality indexes given by GRA, PCA, and a combination of GRA and PCA showed positive linear correlation with 1−ETi/ETc. The comprehensive quality ranking showed that in both years, F2/3M1 (two-thirds full irrigation at stage 2) gave a better result and CK (full irrigation) the worst. An appropriate water deficit at the flowering and fruit development stage, which results in a trade-off between acceptable yield and improved fruit quality, is recommended. Our results provide a sound basis for tomato production that has a desirable balance between high yield and high fruit quality.

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E.A. Baldwin, M.O. Nisperos-Carriedo, and M.G. Moshonas

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit, cvs. Sunny and Solar Set, were analyzed at five ripening stages for ethylene and CO2 production. Homogenates from the same fruit were prepared for determination of color, flavor volatiles, sugars, and organic acids. Changes in the levels of these compounds were compared to the pattern of climacteric ethylene production. Of the flavor volatiles measured, only eugenol decreased during ripening in both cultivars and 1-penten-3-one in `Sunny' tomatoes. Ethanol and trans-2-trans- 4-decadienal levels showed no change or fluctuated as the fruit ripened while all other volatiles measured (cis- 3-hexenol, acetaldehyde, cis- 3-hexenal, trans-2- hexenal, hexenal acetone, 6-methyl-5 -hepten-2-one, geranylacetone, and 2-isobutylthiazole) increased in concentration, peaking in the turning, pink, or red stage of maturity. Synthesis of some volatile compounds occurred simultaneously with that of climacteric ethylene, CO2 and lycopene production. `Solar Set' fruit exhibited higher levels than `Sunny' of all flavor components except ethanol and hexanal in the red stage. There were no differences in organic acid levels between the cultivars; however, `Solar Set' had higher levels of sugars. Changes in acid and sugar levels showed no temporal relationship to climacteric ethylene or CO2 production.

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Yunpeng Gao, Mingwei Zhu, Haoyu Wang, and Shuxian Li

min. The solvent A percentage was maintained for 1 min, after which solvent A was increased linearly to 20% in 0.1 min and held for 5 min. Regarding the quantitative analysis of ABA by HPLC-MS, the characteristic ion pair 263.1/204.2 was monitored. The

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Yung-Kun Chuang, I-Chang Yang, Chao-Yin Tsai, Jiunn-Yan Hou, Yung-Huei Chang, and Suming Chen

achieved quantitative analysis results of carbohydrate concentrations with levels suitable for inspection. Table 4. Prediction of the carbohydrate concentrations in Phalaenopsis plants by stepwise multiple linear regression models in the wavelength 400

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Richard H. Ozminkowski Jr., Robert H. Moll, and Randolph G. Gardner

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Chaowei Song, Qi Wang, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva, and Xiaonan Yu

.S. Wang, W.H. Xu, F. Zhao, J. 2013 Qualitative and quantitative analysis of floral volatile components from different varieties of Lilium spp Scientia Agr. Sinica 46 790 799 Zhao, J. Hu, Z.H. Leng, P.S. Zhang, H.X. Cheng, F.Y. 2012b Fragrance composition