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Susan Wilson Hamilton

Phenomenological interviewing is a research approach used extensively and successfully in the social sciences and has implications for those working with people-plant interactions. Although many research methods are available for horticulturists to use in obtaining information about a target audience, most methods used (e.g., surveys and questionnaires) are quantitative in nature in that they provide numerical data on statistical generalizable patterns. Phenomenological interviewing allows investigators, through open-ended interview questions, to obtain more in-depth data than traditional quantitative techniques. Transcribed interview tapes become the data from which analysis and interpretation follows. “Coding” the data by searching for words, phrases, patterns of behavior, subjects' ways of thinking, and events which are repeated and stand out classify and categorize the data helping with its interpretation and write up. Writing up such data must develop how you interpret what you found by carefully integrating themes that support a thesis and create or augment theoretical explanations. This research method allows investigators to understand and capture the points of view of the participants without predetermining those points of view through prior selection of questionnaire or survey categories.

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Jane Dyrhauge Thomsen, Hans K.H. Sønderstrup-Andersen, and Renate Müller

.P. Handbook of qualitative research methods in entrepreneurship Edward Elgar Cheltenham, UK Bringslimark, T. Hartig, T. Patil, G.G. 2007 Psychological benefits of indoor plants in workplaces: Putting experimental results into context HortScience 42 581 587

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Susan L. Hamilton and Kathleen DeMarrais

This study examined how avid gardeners experience a public garden. Phenomenological interviewing was used to collect data from six avid gardeners who frequently visited a public garden. Data about the gardeners' beliefs and actions regarding gardening history, gardening practices, and involvement with public gardens were gathered. From inductive analysis, a model of a gardener's world composed of four conceptual themes: 1) personal history, 2) social connections, 3) human well-being, and 4) learning experiences was delineated. The conceptual themes of a gardener's world are the personal learning constructs through which gardeners experience the plant world. Each of the four conceptual themes influenced how participants in this study experienced a public garden. Participants used a public garden to socially interact with others, enhance their human well-being, strengthen their gardening background, and extend their gardening knowledge and skill. Several subthemes emerged within the four conceptual themes of an avid gardener's world to inform us how gardening plays an integral role in gardeners' lives.

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T.M. Waliczek, P. Logan, and J.M. Zajicek

The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of an outdoor environmental program, Math and Science in the Outdoor Classroom, on elementary grade students' creative and critical thinking, and attitudes toward math and science. Math and Science in the Outdoor Classroom is an on-campus nature program in Santa Fe, N.M. Students participated in half-day programs focusing on topics such as water, insects, soil, and weather. Twenty-one teachers from five schools volunteered 175 second through sixth graders to participate in the program and research study. Surveys were administered to students, teachers, and volunteers after completion of the program. Interview data was analyzed using QSR NUD*IST (Nonnumerical Unstructured Data Indexing Searching and Theory-building) computer-assisted qualitative data analysis system to examine respondents' perceptions of the program using Bloom's taxonomy as a theoretical framework. Results indicated that students not only learned math and science at the lower levels of Bloom's taxonomy, but were also thinking at the higher levels of synthesis and evaluation within the framework.

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Dru N. Montri, Bridget K. Behe, and Kimberly Chung

Program/Electronic Benefits Transfer sales at farmers’ markets with vendor-operated wireless point-of-sale terminals J. Acad. Nutr. Dietetics 112 5 636 641 Denzin, N. Lincoln, Y. 2008 Handbook of qualitative research. Sage Publ., Thousand Oaks, CA

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Yuan-Yu Chang, Wei-Chia Su, I-Chun Tang, and Chun-Yen Chang

insight into the benefits of school gardening for children in Taiwan and to further identify factors influencing these benefits. By choosing qualitative research methods, this study was able to probe deeply into the rich answers given by participants

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Susan Wilson Hamilton

This study examined how avid gardeners experience a public garden. Phenomenological interviewing was the qualitative research method used to collect data from six avid gardeners who frequently visited a public garden. Data about the gardener's beliefs and actions regarding their gardening history, gardening practices, and involvement with public gardens were gathered. From an inductive analysis, a conceptual model of a gardener's world was delineated. This study found that a gardener's world is composed of four dimensions that include: 1) personal history, 2) social connections, 3) human well-being, and 4) learning experiences. The dimensions of a gardener's world are the personal learning constructs through which gardeners experience their plant world. It is through these dimensions that the avid gardeners in this study experienced a public garden. Each of the four dimensions of an avid gardener's composition influenced how participants experienced a public garden. Participants used a public garden to socially interact with others, enhance their human well-being, strengthen their gardening background, and extend their gardening knowledge and skill. Several categories of activities and events emerged within the four dimensions of an avid gardener's world to inform us how gardening plays an integral role in gardeners' lives.

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Erja Rappe and Aino-Maija Evers

In this qualitative research conducted in Finland, 12 residents in sheltered housing for aged people were interviewed to explore the meanings they associate with the growing of plants. Growing plants had both individual and social meanings for the interviewees. The individual meanings were categorized into three groups: one's own growing skills, the continuity of time, and creating experiences. The category “one's own growing skills” was coded into three subcategories: individual settings and growing methods, interpretation of the plants' needs and responses, and adaptation to current situation. The social meanings identified in the data were also divided into three categories: significant acts undertaken for other people, indications about the gardener, and the feeling of togetherness. The results of the research suggest that growing plants may have an effect on the well-being of the elderly who have a rural background and are living in institutional settings, especially for those aspects threatened by institutional environments: autonomy, a sense of control, identity, and the opportunity to form social relationships.

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Shangchun Hu, Gail Hansen, and Paul Monaghan

they are the primary source of information for a study. General surveys were not used as qualitative research methods can form a more holistic understanding of the situation through thematic/content analysis. Themes then provide a basis for developing

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Amalie B. Kurzer, Rose Bechtel, and Jean-Xavier Guinard

this number was sufficient to achieve redundancy, the typical sampling endpoint ( Merriam, 2009 ). Furthermore, as small-scale interview-based qualitative research is intended to be generative for concepts, the representativeness of the study sample is