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Susan Wilson Hamilton

Phenomenological interviewing is a research approach used extensively and successfully in the social sciences and has implications for those working with people-plant interactions. Although many research methods are available for horticulturists to use in obtaining information about a target audience, most methods used (e.g., surveys and questionnaires) are quantitative in nature in that they provide numerical data on statistical generalizable patterns. Phenomenological interviewing allows investigators, through open-ended interview questions, to obtain more in-depth data than traditional quantitative techniques. Transcribed interview tapes become the data from which analysis and interpretation follows. “Coding” the data by searching for words, phrases, patterns of behavior, subjects' ways of thinking, and events which are repeated and stand out classify and categorize the data helping with its interpretation and write up. Writing up such data must develop how you interpret what you found by carefully integrating themes that support a thesis and create or augment theoretical explanations. This research method allows investigators to understand and capture the points of view of the participants without predetermining those points of view through prior selection of questionnaire or survey categories.

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Yuan-Yu Chang, Wei-Chia Su, I-Chun Tang and Chun-Yen Chang

insight into the benefits of school gardening for children in Taiwan and to further identify factors influencing these benefits. By choosing qualitative research methods, this study was able to probe deeply into the rich answers given by participants

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Susan Wilson Hamilton

This study examined how avid gardeners experience a public garden. Phenomenological interviewing was the qualitative research method used to collect data from six avid gardeners who frequently visited a public garden. Data about the gardener's beliefs and actions regarding their gardening history, gardening practices, and involvement with public gardens were gathered. From an inductive analysis, a conceptual model of a gardener's world was delineated. This study found that a gardener's world is composed of four dimensions that include: 1) personal history, 2) social connections, 3) human well-being, and 4) learning experiences. The dimensions of a gardener's world are the personal learning constructs through which gardeners experience their plant world. It is through these dimensions that the avid gardeners in this study experienced a public garden. Each of the four dimensions of an avid gardener's composition influenced how participants experienced a public garden. Participants used a public garden to socially interact with others, enhance their human well-being, strengthen their gardening background, and extend their gardening knowledge and skill. Several categories of activities and events emerged within the four dimensions of an avid gardener's world to inform us how gardening plays an integral role in gardeners' lives.

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Dru N. Montri, Bridget K. Behe and Kimberly Chung

Recently, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) has pushed to increase the number of farmers markets that accept Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits (formerly known as food stamps) via Electronic Benefits Transfer (EBT). However, a small percentage of farmers markets accept SNAP and little is known of the experience of the farmer-vendors who participate in central terminal model EBT programs at farmers markets. The objective of this exploratory study was to elucidate farmers’ attitudes regarding central terminal model EBT programs at selected Michigan farmers markets. This study used qualitative research methods and a case approach. Thirty-two farmers that participated in central terminal model EBT programs at farmers markets were interviewed. Three main themes emerged. First, based on their experiences, farmers expressed a positive attitude toward central terminal model EBT programs at farmers markets. Second, positive attitudes were often associated with the view that market managers had made it easy for farmers to accept EBT benefits and freed them from the administrative burdens of redemption and federal reporting. Third, farmers believed that accepting food assistance benefits attracted new customers to the farmers market thus expanding their customer base. While these results may not be reflective of farmers’ attitudes in other regions, the themes that emerged highlight topics that may be important considerations when making future decisions about the expansion of electronic food assistance programs at farmers markets.

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benefits by using qualitative research methods from a sample of interviews with 43 elementary school students experienced in gardening. The findings help the researchers to realize the unique characteristics of gardening, highlight the distinctiveness, and

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David S. Conner and Kathleen Demchak

. Standard qualitative research methods were used ( Babbie, 2010 ). Each semistructured interview took place by phone and lasted between 25 and 55 min. Questions focused on farmer experiences, including those regarding production, labor, inputs, pest and weed

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Jane Dyrhauge Thomsen, Hans K.H. Sønderstrup-Andersen and Renate Müller

.P. Handbook of qualitative research methods in entrepreneurship Edward Elgar Cheltenham, UK Bringslimark, T. Hartig, T. Patil, G.G. 2007 Psychological benefits of indoor plants in workplaces: Putting experimental results into context HortScience 42 581 587

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Shangchun Hu, Gail Hansen and Paul Monaghan

they are the primary source of information for a study. General surveys were not used as qualitative research methods can form a more holistic understanding of the situation through thematic/content analysis. Themes then provide a basis for developing

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Skyler Simnitt, Tatiana Borisova, Dario Chavez and Mercy Olmstead

. Focusing on Georgia peach production, we use qualitative research methods to enable extension to develop the best management practices for frost protection. Active research is being conducted in many states to improve frost protection methods; this paper is

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Analena B. Bruce, Elizabeth T. Maynard and James R. Farmer

qualitative case study that was designed as a follow-up to a survey of farmers using high tunnels across Indiana. The goal was to gain an understanding of the farm-level challenges and opportunities experienced after adopting high tunnels. Qualitative research