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V.M. Russo

There is little known about how cultural methods affect yields of nonpungent jalapeño peppers (Capsicum annuum L.). Seedlings of the nonpungent jalapeño peppers `Pace 103', `Pace 105', `Pace 108', `Dulce', and `TAM Sweet2', as well as the pungent jalapeño peppers `Delicias' and `TAM Jalapeño1', used for comparison, were grown in a greenhouse with either one or two seedlings per cell in transplant trays. Transplanting to the field was in mid-April and mid-June of 2000 and 2001. In-row spacing was 0.46 m between transplanting sites. Density was varied by placing either one or two seedlings at a transplant site with resultant plant densities of 24,216 or 48,432 plants/ha. Marketable and cull yields, on a per hectare basis, were determined. In both years there were more fruit produced, and higher yields (25+% greater), at the higher plant density, especially for the mid-April planting. The exception for the mid-April planting date was `TAM Jalapeño1', which was not different at the two densities. If the increased income from higher yield can compensate for the cost of producing two seedlings in each transplant tray cell, then this technique should be employed when these types of peppers are used in early plantings.

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David E. Kopsell and William M. Randle

Pungency and bulb quality changes during storage were evaluated using onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars representing different storage abilities, pungency, and soluble solids content. Bulbs were harvested from greenhouse-grown plants, cured, and stored for 3 or 6 months at 5 ± 3 °C, 80% ± 5% relative humidity (0.8 to 1.1 kPa vapor pressure deficit). Prior to storage, and after each month of storage, bulbs were evaluated for pungency by measuring enzymatically formed pyruvic acid (EPY), soluble solids content (SSC), percent loss in mass (%ML), and loss of dormancy. Pungency differed among cultivars prior to and during storage. Among short-day (SD) cultivars, EPY either decreased or increased linearly with increased storage duration. Among intermediate (ID)- and long-day (LD) cultivars, EPY decreased linearly or quadratically during storage. Short-day cultivar SSC increased, then decreased quadratically during storage, while ID and LD cultivar SSC decreased linearly over time. Percent loss in mass increased linearly during storage among all cultivars, although SD cultivars exhibited greater %ML than did ID or LD cultivars.

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Liliana S. Muñoz-Ramírez, Laura P. Peña-Yam, Susana A. Avilés-Viñas, Adriana Canto-Flick, Adolfo A. Guzmán-Antonio, and Nancy Santana-Buzzy

for the pungency of the chili ( Duelund and Mouritsen, 2017 ). The capsaicinoids, integrated mainly by capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsaicin, and homocapsaicin, are produced in glands located in the point of union of the placenta with the

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Fátima Medina-Lara, Ileana Echevarría-Machado, Ramón Pacheco-Arjona, Nancy Ruiz-Lau, Adolfo Guzmán-Antonio, and Manuel Martinez-Estevez

and national markets, are eaten fresh or dried, or processed into a variety of end products. Hot peppers are popular food additives, valued for their color, pungency, and aroma ( Bosland, 1992 ). In Mexico, hot peppers constitute both part of national

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J.E. Motes, B. Bostian, and N. Maness

The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible causes for greater pungency in pepper (Capsicum annuum) pods of two chile selections when produced at eastern and western Oklahoma locations. Pungency tests over several years have demonstrated that peppers grown in western Oklahoma consistently produce pods with ≈25% greater pungency than peppers grown in eastern Oklahoma. Data from Oklahoma Mesonet stations located near each production location indicated the western Oklahoma location had higher temperatures and wind speed but lower relative humidity than the eastern Oklahoma location during pod development. Mature dry pods were dissected into cap and stem, seeds, and pod wall. Comparisons of pod component differences between the locations showed pods were similar in dry weight; however, western Oklahoma produced more cap and stem in both selections, and in one selection produced more pod wall but less seed. Pungency was 24% and 28% greater in the two selections when grown in western Oklahoma. More pod wall and less seed could account for some of the pungency increase in only one of the selections. The more stressful production environment in western Oklahoma appears to be the major factor in pungency differences between the locations.

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Paongpetch Phimchan, Suchila Techawongstien, Saksit Chanthai, and Paul W. Bosland

Hot peppers ( Capsicum spp.) are one of the most important vegetables and spices in the world. It has been domesticated for more than 6000 years ( Perry et al., 2007 ). Pungency or the sensation of heat when eaten is caused by capsaicinoids, a

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Baniekal Hiremath Gangadhar, Raghvendra Kumar Mishra, Gobinath Pandian, and Se Won Park

blue) on plant growth and development, metabolites (total sugar, reducing sugar, starch, protein, and free amino acid), color, and pungency of fruit in chili pepper. Materials and Methods Plant material. Seeds of commercial chili pepper ( Capsicum

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Cecilia McGregor, Vickie Waters, Savithri Nambeesan, Dan MacLean, Byron L. Candole, and Patrick Conner

pepper, whereas larger plants are preferred for chile pepper ( Crosby, 2008 ). Consumers expect a specific pungency level from certain pepper types, for example Jalapeño is expected to be less pungent than Cayenne. Moreover, bell peppers are non-pungent

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Timothy W. Coolong and William M. Randle

and account for nearly $100 million in farm-gate income annually ( Maw, 2006 ). Valued for their low pungency, these bulbs are typically soft and store poorly ( Kopsell and Randle, 1997 ). Although genetic composition is important in determining bulb

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Charles S. Vavrina and Doyle A. Smittle

Six onion (Allium cepa L.) cultivars were grown during 2 years to evaluate the effects of environment on bulb quality as measured by sugar and pyruvate (pungency) concentrations. Within each year, bulb fresh weight was not affected by cultivar; however, bulb fresh weights were 36% higher in a year when most of the rain fell during maximum bulb expansion. Total bulb sugar concentration and pungency varied among cultivars and years. Pungency was higher and the sugar: pungency ratio was lower in `Texas 1015Y' and `Sweet Georgia' than in `Dessex', `Rio Bravo', 'Hybrid Yellow Granex', and `Granex 33'. Under low S nutrition, market acceptance of “sweet” onion cultivars that vary slightly in nonstructural water-soluble carbohydrates may be assessed more precisely by the sugar: pungency ratio than by sugar or pungency assessments.