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Bruce W. Wood

stress”, typically increases alternate bearing intensity ( I ; Pearce and Dobersek-Urbanc, 1967 ), which is perhaps the economically most important biological problem faced by commercial pecan enterprises. Timely use of mechanized hedge-type pruning as a

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Bruce W. Wood and Deane Stahmann

An ever increasing cost:price squeeze on the profitability of pecan (Carya illinoinensis) farming is driving a search for alternate husbandry approaches. `Wichita' and `Western' trees maintained at relatively high tree population density, by mechanized hedge pruning and topping, produced greater nut yield than an orchard treatment in which tree population density was reduced by tree thinning (144% for `Wichita' and 113% for `Western Schley'). Evaluation of three different hedge pruning strategies, over a 20-year period, identified a discrete canopy hedge pruning and topping strategy using a 2-year cycle, as being superior to that of a discrete canopy hedge pruning and topping strategy using an 8-year cycle, but not as good as a continuous canopy hedge pruning and topping strategy using a 1-year cycle. An evaluation of 21 commercial cultivars indicated that nut yields of essentially all cultivars can be relatively high if properly hedge pruned [annual in-shell nut yields of 2200 to 3626 lb/acre (2465.8 to 4064.1 kg·ha-1), depending on cultivar]. Comparative alternate bearing intensity and nut quality characteristics are reported for 21 cultivars. These evaluations indicate that pecan orchards can be highly productive, with substantially reduced alternate bearing, when managed via a hedge-row-like pruning strategy giving narrow canopies [3403 lb/acre (3814.2 kg·ha-1) for `Wichita' and 3472 lb/acre (3891.5 kg·ha-1) for `Western Schley']. North-south-oriented (N-S) hedgerows produced higher yields that did east-west (E-W) hedgerows (yield for N-S `Wichita' was 158% that of E-W trees and N-S `Western Schley' was 174% that of E-W trees).

These data indicate that mechanized hedge pruning and topping offers an attractive alternative to the conventional husbandry paradigm.

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William H. Olson, D.E. Ramos, K. Ryugo, and R.G. Snyder

Annual pruning was compared with nonpruning for 8 years and to two biennial pruning treatments for 4 years in a mature full-canopied `Ashley' walnut (Juglans regia L.) orchard. Light penetration and nut distribution through the canopy was improved by pruning. Nut size and percent edible kernel was consistently lower in nonpruned trees than in trees pruned annually or biennially. Yield from annually pruned trees was not significantly different from that of the nonpruned trees because of the removal of fruitful spurs. Yield of biennially pruned trees was similar to annually pruned or nonpruned trees in the year following pruning, but yield was usually greater during years in which trees were not pruned.

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A. James Downer, Donald R. Hodel, and Maren J. Mochizuki

Palms are arborescent monocotyledons that do not usually branch along their stem. Consequently, pruning landscape palms is essentially the removal of inflorescences and leaves from the lower portion of the canopy or, in the case of multiple trunked

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Kelly M. Stanton, Sally S. Weeks, Michael N. Dana, and Michael V. Mickelbart

produce summer flowers from new growth. Catchpole (1963) gives recommendations for pruning japanese spirea ( Spiraea japonica ), margitae spirea ( Spiraea × margaritae ), and menzie's spirea ( Spiraea douglasii var. menziesii ), all of which have

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James R. Schupp and T. Auxt Baugher

). Studies were conducted in Pennsylvania peach orchards in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate possible pruning strategies to improve peach tree canopy access by string thinners. Research on scaffold angle and accessibility was conducted in 2009. The objectives were

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Lisa McFadyen, David Robertson, Margaret Sedgley, Paul Kristiansen, and Trevor Olesen

continues to increase, the orchard floor and lower canopy become shaded for most of the day, diminishing the benefit of the open interrow. Manual pruning of mature trees has been trialed in other tree crops, where orchard crowding is a problem, to reduce

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Bielinski M. Santos

Pruning is a field operation aimed to remove unwanted lateral and basal branches or “suckers” in staked fresh-market tomato. This cultural practice occurs between 2 and 4 weeks after transplanting (WAT), and it could be accomplished once or twice

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Brandon M. Miller and William R. Graves

minimal. Harris et al. (2001) suggested that root pruning of Quercus rubra L. (red oak), which presumably results in a more branched or fibrous root system, may facilitate transplanting and container production. Root pruning can affect the number of

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Rui Zhang, Fang-Ren Peng, Pan Yan, Fan Cao, Zhuang-Zhuang Liu, Dong-Liang Le, and Peng-Peng Tan

lateral root formation. Newly planted trees may become established promptly, may make a semblance of growth for several years and finally become established, or may fail entirely and die ( Laiche, 1980 ). Root pruning ( Harris et al., 2001 ; Keever et al