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Robert O.M. Mwanga, Benson Odongo, Charles Niringiye, Agnes Alajo, Benjamin Kigozi, Rose Makumbi, Esther Lugwana, Joweria Namukula, Isaac Mpembe, Regina Kapinga, Berga Lemaga, James Nsumba, Silver Tumwegamire and Craig G. Yencho

cultivars provides consumers and farmers with high-quality sweetpotatoes with cream- and orange-fleshed storage roots and moderate to high provitamin A contents with potential to alleviate widespread vitamin A deficiency in Uganda and other developing

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Robert O.M. Mwanga, Gerald Kyalo, Gorrettie N. Ssemakula, Charles Niringiye, Benard Yada, Milton A. Otema, Joweria Namakula, Agnes Alajo, Benjamin Kigozi, Rose N.M. Makumbi, Anna-Marie Ball, Wolfgang J. Grüneberg, Jan W. Low and G. Craig Yencho

or a combination of genes for combining desirable traits such as orange-fleshed roots (provitamin A), high dry matter (≥30%), resistance to SPVD and alternaria bataticola stem blight, and early maturity (3 to 4 months). Table 1. Origin and main

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Laura Rodriguez-Uribe, Luz Hernandez, James P. Kilcrease, Stephanie Walker and Mary A. O’Connell

, capsanthin is the most abundant carotenoid and this carotenoid generates the red color in the fruit ( Daood et al., 2014 ; Deli et al., 2001 ). β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin are orange-colored carotenoids that are essential provitamin A nutrients. They are

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Maria I. Andrade, Abilio Alvaro, Joana Menomussanga, Godwill S. Makunde, José Ricardo, Wolfgang J. Grüneberg, Raúl Eyzaguirre, Jan Low and Rodomiro Ortiz

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Rachel A. Itle and Eileen A. Kabelka

human health by acting as sources of provitamin A or by acting as protective antioxidants required for proper reproduction, growth, and development; a normal functioning ocular system; epithelial cell integrity; and immune system functionality ( FAO

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Beiquan Mou

There is increasing medical evidence for the health benefits derived from dietary intake of carotenoid antioxidants, such as β-carotene and lutein. Enhancing the nutritional levels of vegetables would improve the nutrient intake without requiring an increase in consumption. A breeding program to improve the nutritional quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) must start with an assessment of the existing genetic variation. To assess the genetic variability in carotenoid contents, 52 genotypes including crisphead, leaf, romaine, butterhead, primitive, Latin, and stem lettuces, and wild species were planted in the field in Salinas, Calif., in the Summer and Fall of 2003 with four replications. Duplicate samples from each plot were analyzed for chlorophyll (a and b), β-carotene, and lutein concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Wild accessions (L. serriola L., L. saligna L., L. virosa L., and primitive form) had higher β-carotene and lutein concentrations than cultivated lettuces, mainly due to the lower moisture content of wild lettuces. Among major types of cultivated lettuce, carotenoid concentration followed the order of: green leaf or romaine > red leaf > butterhead > crisphead. There was significant genetic variation in carotenoid concentration within each of these lettuce types. Crisphead lettuce accumulated more lutein than β-carotene, while other lettuce types had more β-carotene than lutein. Carotenoid concentration was higher in summer than in the fall, but was not affected by the position of the plant on the raised bed. Beta-carotene and lutein concentrations were highly correlated, suggesting that their levels could be enhanced simultaneously. Beta-carotene and lutein concentrations were both highly correlated with chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll concentrations, suggesting that carotenoid content could be selected indirectly through chlorophyll or color measurement. These results suggest that genetic improvement of carotenoid levels in lettuce is feasible.

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Megan J. Bowman, David K. Willis and Philipp W. Simon

)], maize [ Zea mays ( Buckner et al., 1996 ; Harjes et al., 2008 ; Vallabhaneni and Wurtzel, 2009 )], and marigold [ Tagetes erecta ( Moehs et al., 2001 )]. Of these previously studied plant species, none contributes as much to overall provitamin A

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Fekadu Gurmu, Shimelis Hussein and Mark Laing

another major focus area, among which improving β-carotene content (provitamin A) is the top priority. Breeding for high β-carotene content is crucial because vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is a serious health problem that results in blindness, weak resistance