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Yuejin Weng, Jun Qin, Stephen Eaton, Yufeng Yang, Waltram Second Ravelombola, and Ainong Shi

at equivalent protein contents. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in breeding cowpea cultivars with high seed protein content to improve nutritional quality. Evaluation of seed protein content in cowpea germplasm will help plant

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Hui-juan Zhou, Zheng-wen Ye, Ming-shen Su, Ji-hong Du, and Xiong-wei Li

soluble and HSP contents during storage. The contents of soluble and HSP were measured during refrigerated storage ( Fig. 1 ). The soluble protein content after 30 min of heat treatment increased up to 6 d and then decreased; the soluble protein content

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Ryo Matsuda and Chieri Kubota

-pollinated versus hybrid). A high expression of transgenic protein is desirable in PMP production. For edible vaccine production in tomato, for example, high vaccine protein content could increase the efficiency of mucosal immunization per unit of mass of the freeze

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Yali He, Xiaozhong Liu, and Bingru Huang

Various physiological processes may deteriorate in response to increasing temperatures, contributing to the decline in turf quality for cool-season turfgrasses during heat stress. This study was performed to investigate metabolic changes (membrane lipid peroxidation, total protein content, amino acid content, and protease activity) associated with turf quality decline for creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera Huds.) in response to gradually increasing temperatures for a short duration and prolonged exposure to lethally high temperature. Plants were subjected to increasing temperatures of 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 °C for 7 days at each level of temperature [gradual heat stress (GHS)] or exposed to high temperature of 40 °C for 28 days [prolonged heat stress (PHS)] in growth chambers. During the GHS treatment, significant decline in turf quality occurred when plants were exposed to 30 °C for 7 days; simultaneously, malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased and total protein content in shoots decreased significantly compared to those at 20 °C. Protease activity increased at 25 °C and then decreased as temperature was elevated from 30 to 40 °C during the GHS treatment. Amino acid content decreased under GHS, beginning at 25 °C. Under the PHS treatment, turf quality declined and MDA content increased significantly, beginning at 14 days of PHS, while total protein content decreased at 7 days of PHS. Protease activity and amino acid content increased at 7 days of PHS, and then declined with longer stress duration. Our results indicated that protease activity, and amino acid and total protein content were more responsive to GHS or PHS than that of lipid peroxidation and turf quality. Changes in metabolic parameters of protease activity, amino acid and total protein content, and lipid peroxidation may contribute to leaf senescence and poor turf performance under severe or prolonged heat stress conditions for creeping bentgrass.

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Ryo Matsuda, Chieri Kubota, M. Lucrecia Alvarez, and Guy A. Cardineau

, but did specifically lower fruit TSP concentration including F1-V concentration per unit DW and their contents per whole fruit in the transgenic tomato. Generally, in salt- and water-stressed parts of a plant, the protein content can decrease owing to

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

. ‘Virginia’ was the best cultivar based on protein content (26.2%), whereas ‘KS8227’ cultivar had the highest oil content (28.7%). ‘Virginia’ is a locally adapted, high-yielding cultivar developed at Virginia State University. Highest oil content in canola

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Harbans L. Bhardwaj and Anwar A. Hamama

of fresh sprouts. Canola sprouts made from seed of Virginia cultivar had the highest protein content (26.2%), whereas those made from seeds of KS 8227 cultivar had the highest oil content (28.7%). We also reported that canola sprouts compared well

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Michael A. Arnold and Eric Young

Bare-root Malus × domestica Borkh. seedlings were chilled for 0, 600, 1200, or 1800 hours at 5C (CH). Seedlings were then placed with roots and/or shoots in all combinations of 5 and 20C forcing conditions (FC) for up to 21 days. Virtually no growth occurred at 5C FC. When the whole plant was forced at 20C, all measures of root and shoot growth increased in magnitude, occurred earlier and at a faster rate with increasing CH. Thus, roots and shoots responded similarly to chilling. When shoots or roots were subjected to 20C FC, while the other portion of the plant was at 5C, the responses were reduced in magnitude and delayed. However, the overall growth enhancement by chilling was not negated. Root and shoot growth enhancement by chilling appeared to be increased if the other portion of the plant was actively growing also, but not dependent on it. Growth of adventitious shoots on roots (root suckers) was greatly enhanced with increasing CH on plants subjected to 5C shoot and 20C root FC. While total root and shoot bark protein levels on a per-seedling basis were similar, protein concentrations were lower in root bark than in shoot bark. During chilling, total protein per seedling generally increased until just before the time that chilling requirements for vegetative budbreak were satisfied. Protein degradation then began, resulting in lower protein levels through 2300 CH. Rapid protein breakdown (1200 to 1800 CH, roots; 1000 to 1800 CH, shoots) occurred at about the same time that root (1000 to 1800 CH) and shoot (800 to 1800 CH) growth responses to chilling were increasing. Warm FC resulted in increased protein breakdown with increased CH and forcing time.

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Shahrokh Khanizadeh, Deborah Buszard, and Constantinos G. Zarkadas

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Begoña Del Cura, María I. Escribano, Jose P. Zamorano, and Carmen Merodio

The peel of `Fino de Jete' cherimoya (Annona cherimola Mill.) stored at 20 °C in air and in an atmosphere with high levels of CO2 was analyzed for changes in protein levels, color, chlorophyll content, and firmness. The accumulation of immunoreactive proteins was studied using Rubisco and polygalacturonase antibodies. During storage in air, cherimoya peel tissues exhibited a decrease in chlorophyll content and an immunodetected drop in the abundance of the large subunit of ribulose 1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (LSR). An immunodetected rise in polygalacturonase (PG)-related protein was quantified. High CO2 levels delayed the softening of cherimoya fruit, retarded the maximum accumulation of PG-related protein, and maintained LSR levels, greenness, and chlorophyll content of peel tissues.