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Richard H. Ozminkowski Jr., Randolph G. Gardner, Robert H. Moll, and Warren R. Henderson

Prostrate growth habit (PGH) in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) lines derived from breeding material developed at the Agriculture Canada Research Station, Beaverlodge, Alberta, was the subject of a quantitative inheritance study. Plants with PGH have an increased lateral branch angle, relative to upright plants, and crown-set fruit supported above the soil surface making hand harvest easier. Genetic parameters were estimated in two families (20G and 53G), each containing PGH and upright-habit parental lines, F1, F2, and backcrosses to each parent. Field-grown plants were subjectively rated twice during the growing season. Broad-sense heritability of PGH in family 20G was estimated to be 0.65 and 0.71 for ratings of plant growth habit 6 and 9 weeks after transplanting, respectively, and 0.71 and 0.68 for those of family 53G. Narrow-sense heritability was estimated to be 0.83 and 1.05 for the two ratings in the 20G family and 0.77 and 0.78 in the 53G family. F1 and F2 means were not different from mid-parent values. The genetic variance was entirely additive and expression was influenced by the environment. The data did not support the hypothesis that PGH was controlled by a single gene.

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Richard H. Ozminkowski Jr., Randolph G. Gardner, Warren R. Henderson, and Robert H. Moll

Two inbred lines of fresh-market tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), NC 20G-1 and NC 53G-1, both exhibiting prostrate growth habit (PGH), were crossed with the upright growth habit cultivar Piedmont and advanced to the F2 generation. Plants of each F2 population were grown without plant support on black plastic and subjectively rated in field plots for PGH. Extreme upright and prostrate plants were chosen from each F2 population for harvest. Mean comparisons between plants of extreme upright and prostrate habit showed increased total and marketable yields from plants with a prostrate habit. Decay and groundscarring of fruit were less in prostrate than in normally upright plants; the percentage of misshapen fruit was similar in both. The PGH character may be useful in increasing total and marketable yield of ground-culture tomatoes.

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Elisabeth Hodgdon, Jennifer Bonina Noseworthy, and Rebecca Grube Sideman

percentage of off-type plants that exhibit dense and distorted leaves and a low percentage of blossoms successfully setting fruit. ‘Rambling Rose’ is a cherry tomato with pink fruit and a determinate, prostrate growth habit suitable for production in large

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Kevin E. Kenworthy, Dennis L. Martin, and Charles M. Taliaferro

greater in density but more upright in growth habit compared with ‘Tifway’, the industry standard triploid (2n = 3x = 27) interspecific F 1 hybrid. If African bermudagrass plants could be identified with a more prostrate growth habit, it may be possible

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Guangyao Wang, Milton E. McGiffen Jr., John L. Lindquist, Jeff D. Ehlers, and Ivan Sartorato

Ecophysiological simulation models provide a quantitative method to predict the effects of management practices, plant characteristics, and environmental factors on crop and weed growth and competition. The INTERCOM interplant competition model was parameterized, calibrated by monoculture data for three cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) genotypes that differed in growth habit, common sunflower (Helianthus annuus), and common purslane (Portulaca oleracea), and used to simulate competition of cowpea cover crops with sunflower or purslane. The simulation results were compared with observations from field competition experiments in 2003 and 2004. INTERCOM did not simulate biomass production and leaf area index (LAI) of cowpea and purslane well, probably due to a lack of published data on purslane physiology. INTERCOM simulated the competition of cowpea genotypes and sunflower accurately. The simulation model of cowpea and sunflower at two densities was used to study the effects of cowpea growth habits on final biomass production of cowpea and sunflower. The model suggested that the erect growth habit was more competitive than the semi-erect and prostrate growth habits when cowpea genotypes were grown with sunflower. Cowpea leaf area distribution was important to higher cowpea biomass production, while cowpea height growth was important to reduce sunflower biomass.

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Stacy A. Bonos, William A. Meyer, and James A. Murphy

The apomictic breeding behavior of Poa pratensis L. provides an opportunity to study many unique genotypes that can vary dramatically in characteristics such as disease resistance, stress tolerance and growth habit. The classification of Kentucky bluegrass into types is based on common growth and stress performance characteristics gathered from field turf trials. These classification types include the Compact, Bellevue, Mid-Atlantic, BVMG (`Baron, `Victa', `Merit', and `Gnome'), Common, and Aggressive types. A spaced-plant nursery trial was established in May 1996 to quantify morphological and growth characteristics of 45 cultivars and selections representing the major types of Kentucky bluegrass. Plant height, panicle height, flag leaf height and length, subtending leaf length and width, rhizome spread, and longest extending rhizome were measured 10 days after anthesis. Compact type cultivars had a lower, more prostrate growth habit than the Common, Mid-Atlantic, and Bellevue types. Mid-Atlantic type cultivars had a wider rhizome spread than Compact type cultivars. Principal component analysis of morphological measurements made on spaced-plants supports the classification types of the Common, Compact, Bellevue, Mid-Atlantic, and BVMG, but not necessarily the Aggressive type.

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Beth A. Fausey, Royal D. Heins, and Arthur C. Cameron

The growth and development of Achillea ×millefolium L. `Red Velvet', Gaura lindheimeri Engelm. & Gray `Siskiyou Pink' and Lavandula angustifolia Mill. `Hidcote Blue' were evaluated under average daily light integrals (DLIs) of 5 to 20 mol·m-2·d-1. Plants were grown in a 22 ± 2 °C glass greenhouse with a 16-h photoperiod under four light environments: 50% shading of ambient light plus PPF of 100 μmol·m-2·s-1 (L1); ambient light plus PPF of 20 μmol·m-2·s-1 (L2); ambient light plus PPF of 100 μmol·m-2·s-1 (L3); and ambient light plus PPF of 150 μmol·m-2·s-1 (L4). Between 5 to 20 mol·m-2·d-1, DLI did not limit flowering and had little effect on timing in these studies. Hence, the minimum DLI required for flowering of Achillea, Gaura and Lavandula must be <5 mol·m-2·d-1, the lowest light level tested. However, all species exhibited prostrate growth with weakened stems when grown at a DLI of about 10 mol·m-2·d-1. Visual quality and shoot dry mass of Achillea, Gaura and Lavandula linearly increased as DLI increased from 5 to 20 mol·m-2·d-1 and there was no evidence that these responses to light were beginning to decline. While 10 mol·m-2·d-1 has been suggested as an adequate DLI, these results suggest that 15 to 20 mol·m-2·d-1 should be considered a minimum for production of these herbaceous perennials when grown at about 22 °C.

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Robert R. Shortell, William A. Meyer, and Stacy A. Bonos

The apomictic breeding behavior of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) results in many unique cultivars. A classification system was previously developed to characterize the large number of Kentucky bluegrass cultivars into different types. However, many new cultivars have been released since the last refinement of the classification system. The objectives of this study were to determine differences in morphological and agronomic characteristics among select Kentucky bluegrass cultivars representing the major classification types and to determine broad-sense heritability estimates for important morphological (plant height, panicle length, flag leaf height, and flag leaf length and width) and agronomic (rhizome spread) traits in Kentucky bluegrass. A spaced-plant nursery trial was established in the spring of 2003 at Adelphia, NJ. One hundred seventy-three cultivars and selections were planted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The morphological and agronomic traits listed were measured on spaced plants. High Density type cultivars (formerly the Aggressive type cultivars) had the most prostrate growth habit with plant heights of 33 and 43 cm in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Mid-Atlantic and Texas × Kentucky bluegrass hybrids had the widest rhizome spread (Mid-Atlantic = 73 and 121 cm; Texas × Kentucky bluegrass hybrids = 72 and 122 cm) in 2004 and 2005, respectively. Broad-sense heritability estimates were high for plant height (H = 0.84), panicle length (H = 0.88), flag leaf height (H = 0.85), and rhizome spread (H = 0.85); moderate for flag leaf length (H = 0.71); and low for flag leaf width (H = 0.11). This study characterizes new cultivars into respective groups and identifies the genetic inheritance of important morphological and agronomic traits in Kentucky bluegrass.

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John R. Stommel and Robert J. Griesbach

-breeding genotype with compact upright growth habit, black foliage, and erect clusters of tabasco-type fruit that mature from black to red. ‘Christmas Cheer’ is a true-breeding variety with a prostrate growth habit, green foliage, and erect clusters of 1.5-cm

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John R. Stommel and Robert J. Griesbach

‘Royal Black’. Small tabasco-type fruit and black immature fruit color were derived from 90C44 and 94C27. Orange mature fruit color was introgressed from the sweet bell pepper ‘Ariane’. Prostrate growth habit was introduced by intercrossing with the