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Fenghua Shi, Chun Sui, Yue Jin, Hao Huang and Jianhe Wei

study focus of male sterility has shifted to the programmed cell death (PCD) of pollen development ( Coimbra et al., 2004 ; Ku et al., 2003 ; Shi et al., 2009 ; Wan et al., 2010 ). PCD is an active cell death process involved in the selective

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Laura J. Chapin, Youyoun Moon and Michelle L. Jones

Programmed cell death is a highly ordered process whereby plants or animals can remove unneeded or damaged cells or tissues during development or in response to abiotic or biotic stresses ( Beers and McDowell, 2001 ). PCD in animals is characterized

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Hailin Shen, Zhendong Liu, Ke Yan, Liren Zou, Jinghui Wen, Yinshan Guo, Kun Li and Xiuwu Guo

Amur grape (Vitis amurensis) is a dioecious species. To elucidate the time of and reason for pistil abortion in male amur grape from the perspective of cytology, we observed the sections of pistil of a male line during its development using optical and transmission electron microscopes. The abnormity in the morphology of nucellar cell and the development of various organelles appeared before the abnormity of functional megaspore mitosis. Programmed cell death (PCD) of the nucellar cells might be an important reason for mitosis disorder, leading to the abortion of pistil in male flower. However, the abortion can be eliminated by forchlorfenuron treatment, resulting in the recovery of functional pistil in male amur grape. This study provides cytological information on the gender conversion mechanism in male amur grape, which can promote gender determination studies in Vitis species.

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Yiran Li, Akiha Abe, Takuichi Fuse, Tomonari Hirano, Yoichiro Hoshino and Hisato Kunitake

programmed cell death (PCD) in incompatible pollen tubes. PCD is a crucial process to selectively eliminate unneeded or damaged cells for development and tissue homeostasis ( Fuchs and Steller, 2011 ). In apoptosis, one form of PCD, relocalization of

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William R. Woodson, Ky Young Park, Paul Larsen and Hong Wang

The senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower petals is associated with increased synthesis of the phytohormone ethylene. This ethylene serves to initiate and regulate the processes of programmed cell death. We are using molecular approaches to study the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in various floral organs during development and senescence of flowers. We have isolated and cloned mRNAs which encode the ethylene biosynthetic pathway enzymes s-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthetase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and the ethylene forming enzyme (EFE) from carnation flower petals. These cDNAs have been used as molecular probes to determine the steady-state mRNA levels of these transcripts in senescing flowers. The increase in ethylene associated with petal senescence is accompanied by a dramatic increase in the abundance of transcripts for both ACC synthase and EFE. In striking contrast, the level of SAM synthetase mRNA decreases significantly with the onset of petal senescence. Genomic DNA Southern blots reveal both ACC synthase and EFE are encoded by multigene families. We have recently isolated several genomic clones from carnation which represent different ACC synthase genes. The structure and organization of these gene will be presented.

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Cheng-Jung Hu, Nean Lee and Yung-I Lee

programmed cell death (PCD) of tapetum will result in the male sterility ( Papini et al., 1999 ). In kiwifruit, male sterility was caused by a delayed PCD in the middle layer and tapetum ( Giuseppina et al., 2013 ), whereas the premature PCD is detected in

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Ramón A. Arancibia, Jeffrey L. Main and Christopher A. Clark

. < García-Heredia, J.M. Hervás, M. De la Rosa, M.A. Navarro, J.A. 2008 Acetylsalicylic acid induces programmed cell death in arabidopsis cell cultures Planta 228 89 97

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Arthur Villordon, Christopher Clark, Don LaBonte and Nurit Firon

initiating programmed cell death of epidermal cells that cover AR primordia ( Steffens and Sauter, 2005 ). This work can also be used as a methodological model for conducting follow-up studies to determine if a similar mechanism exists for sweetpotato. Auxin

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Chen Jiang, Penelope Perkins-Veazie, Sylvia M. Blankenship, Michael D. Boyette, Zvezdana Pesic-VanEsbroeck, Katherine M. Jennings and Jonathan R. Schultheis

.R. Schultheis, unpublished). Programmed cell death may be the underlying nature of sweetpotato IN. In this process, phenolic compounds and ROS increase in response to stress to protect the plant ( Beckman, 2000 ; Gadjev et al., 2008 ). Future studies on the

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Yuliya A. Salanenka, Martin C. Goffinet and Alan G. Taylor

mechanical obliteration during radicle protrusion or by programmed cell death. Serrato-Valenti et al. (2000) hypothesized that the presence of the suspensor in mature seeds might create structural conditions that facilitate radicle protrusion through the