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Honghui Gu, Jiansheng Wang, Huifang Yu, Zhenqing Zhao, Xiaoguang Sheng, Jisuan Chen and Yingjun Xu

-butenyl GS (gluconapin), also possess a degree of anticarcinogenic activity ( Fahey et al., 1997 ), but these compounds may have adverse health effects ( Verkerk et al., 2009 ). For example, oxazolidine-2-thiones formed from progoitrin and found in

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Timothy W. Coolong, William M. Randle, Heather D. Toler and Carl E. Sams

Rapid cycling Brassica rapa L. were grown for 7 days in the presence of 11 levels of zinc (Zn) in hydroponic solution culture and evaluated for changes in Zn and glucosinolate (GS) content. Zinc levels were 0.05, 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, and 200 mg·L-1 Zn. Plants grown in solutions with ≥50 mg·L-1 Zn displayed severe Zn toxicity symptoms, grew little, or died and were not subsequently evaluated for GS content. Shoot Zn concentrations increased linearly with increasing Zn treatment levels. Gluconapin, which accounted for nearly 90% of the aliphatic GSs present, was the only aliphatic GS influenced by Zn, and decreased linearly with increasing Zn levels. Accumulation of glucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucosbrassicin, both indole GSs, responded with a linear increase and quadratically, respectively, to Zn fertility. An aromatic GS, gluconasturtiin, was also influenced by Zn levels in solution, and had a quadratic response to increasing Zn. This suggested that Zn fertility can influence changes in GS that may affect flavor (bitterness, etc.) or medicinal attributes associated with the GS and their breakdown products, as well as elevate the nutritional status of Zn in the leaves of Brassica.

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Pablo Velasco, Pilar Soengas, Marta Vilar, Maria Elena Cartea and Mercedes del Rio

, glucosinolates have been shown to have a deleterious effect on domesticated livestock when consumed at high concentrations ( Fenwick et al., 1983 ; Griffiths et al., 1998 ; Laurberg et al., 2002 ). This is largely due to the presence of progoitrin, which

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Vincent A. Fritz, Veronica L. Justen, Ann M. Bode, Todd Schuster and Min Wang

effects of JA × cultivar and JA × year were significant for progoitrin (PRO) and total GSL concentrations, respectively. JA did not significantly affect total GSL concentrations in 2004, but did significantly affect total GSLs in 2005 with the 0.2 m m

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Allan F. Brown, Gad G. Yousef, Elizabeth H. Jeffery, Barbara P. Klein, Mathew A. Wallig, Mosbah M. Kushad and John A. Juvik

Ten broccoli [Brassica oleracea L. (Botrytis Group)] accessions were grown in several environments to estimate glucosinolate (GS) variability associated with genotype, environment, and genotype × environment interaction and to identify differences in the stability of GSs in broccoli florets. Significant differences in genetic variability were identified for aliphatic GSs but not for indolyl GSs. The percentage of GS variability attributable to genotype for individual aliphatic compounds ranged from 54.2% for glucoraphanin to 71.0% for progoitrin. For total indolyl GSs, the percentage of variability attributable to genotype was only 12%. Both qualitative and quantitative differences in GSs were detected among the genotypes. Ten-fold differences in progoitrin, glucoraphanin, and total aliphatic GS levels were observed between the highest and lowest genotypes. Only two lines, Eu8-1 and VI-158, produced aliphatic GSs other than glucoraphanin in appreciable amounts. Differences in stability of these compounds among the cultivars were also observed between fall and spring plantings. Results suggest that genetic factors necessary for altering the qualitative and quantitative aliphatic GS profiles are present within existing broccoli germplasm, which makes breeding for enhanced cancer chemoprotectant activity feasible.

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Ji Yeon Kang, Khalid E. Ibrahim, John A. Juvik, Doo Hwan Kim and Wha Jeung Kang

Strong evidence exists to suggest that increased consumption of glucosinolates from Brassica vegetables is associated with reduced risk of cancer induction and development. Development of elite germplasm of these vegetables with enhanced levels of glucosinolates will putatively enhance health promotion among the consuming public. To evaluate levels of glucosinolate phenotypic variation in Chinese cabbage tissue and partition the total phenotypic variation into component sources (genotype, environment, and genotype-by-environment interaction), a set of 23 Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis genotypes were grown in two different environments (field plots and greenhouse ground beds). Gluconasturtiin and glucobrassicin were found to account for ≈80% of total head glucosinolate content. Significant differences were found in glucosinolate concentrations between the lowest and highest genotypes for glucobrassicin (6-fold) and for gluconasturtiin (2.5-fold). Analysis of variance showed that for the three major glucosinolates (gluconasturtiin, glucobrassicin, and progoitrin), the genotypic effects described most of the phenotypic variation (62% averaged over the three compounds). The next most important factor was genotype × environment interaction (29%), whereas variation affiliated with the environment was found to be relatively minor (8%). These results suggest that genetic manipulation and selection can be conducted to increase glucosinolate content and the putative health promotion associated with consumption of Chinese cabbage.

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Merete Hansen, Peter Møller, Hilmer Sørensen and Marita Cantwell de Trejo

Content of total and individual glucosinolates were determined in, `Marathon' broccoli florets (Brassica olerucea L. var. italica stored 7 days at 10C under air, 0.5% O2, 0.5% O2 + 20% CO2 or 20% CO2 atmosphere, followed by transfer to air for 2 days. `Marathon' broccoli contained glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, glucoiberin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, progoitrin, glucoalyssin, and gluconasturtiin. The methylssulfinylalkylglucosinolates (glucoiberin and glucoraphanin) and the indol-3-ylmethylglucosinolates (glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin) accounted for 78% and 20% of the total content, respectively, in freshly harvested broccoli. CA treatment and storage time had no significant effect on the relative content of these two groups of glucosinolates. Freshly harvested broccoli contained 47 μmol glucosinolate/g dry weight. The total glucosinolate content increased 42% and 21% during 7 days storage under air and 0.5% O2 + 20% CO2, respectively, as compared to freshly harvested broccoli, and decreased 15% in broccoli stored under 20% CO2. Treatment with 20% CO2 in the absence of 0, resulted in visible CO, injury and water soaking of the tissue. Aeration had no significant effect on total glucosinolate content but reduced the glucobrassicin content 35% in broccoli stored 7 days under 0.5% O2 + 20% CO2 or 20% CO2 atmosphere. In contrast, the 4-methoxyglucobrassicin content increased during storage under low O2 atmosphere and increased further after transfer to air.

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Heather D. Toler, Craig S. Charron, Carl E. Sams and William R. Randle

.) via a method outlined by Charron et al. (2001) . Identification of desulfonated glucosinolate peaks was determined by running the desulfonated glucosinolate standards glucoiberin, progoitrin, epiprogoitrin, sinigrin, sinalbin, gluconapin

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Xinjuan Chen, Zhujun Zhu, Joska Gerendás and Nadine Zimmermann

neoglucobrassicin were the predominant GSs in Chinese cabbage ‘Huangyacai’ and ‘Zaoshuwuhao’, respectively. The major GSs in choysum ‘Sijiu’ were identified as sinigrin, gluconapin, glucobrassicanapin, and progoitrin, with the latter three generally predominating

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Dilip R. Panthee, Dean A. Kopsell and Carl E. Sams

, progoitrin (2-hydroxybut-3-enyl GS), and sinigrin (2-propenyl GS) were provided by Sandro Palmieri of the Instituto Sperimentale Industriali (Bologna, Italy). Gluconasturtiin (2-phenylethyl GS) was purchased from LKT Laboratories Inc. (St. Paul, MN). Response