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Alan W. Hodges, Charles R. Hall, Bridget K. Behe and Jennifer H. Dennis

spending ( Hall et al., 2006 ). In 2006, sales of U.S. nursery and greenhouse crops reached $16.9 billion ( Jerardo, 2007 ). Despite its growing importance, however, the production and management practices followed in this industry have not been well

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Crofton Sloan and Susan S. Harkness

at $750 million, while U.S. production of cut flowers was estimated to be valued at $385 million ( Jerardo, 2006 ). About one-half of imported flowers are roses ( Jerardo, 2006 ). More cut roses are produced and consumed in the United States than any

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Bruce W. Wood

The United States pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] industry is based on about 10,107,170 trees (about 15% nonbearing) comprising about 492,137 acres (199,168 ha) of orchards (34% in Texas, 27% Georgia, and 17% Oklahoma) dispersed among about 19,900 farm operations (36% in Texas, 16% Georgia, and 7% Oklahoma) in 24 states. Fifty-six percent of this acreage is on farms with ≥100 acres (40.5 ha) of trees (i.e., 5% of total farms). An evaluation of production related changes over the last decade indicate fundamental changes occurring in the nature of the U. S. industry. These include a) movement toward agricultural industrialization as reflected by fewer small-farms and more large-farms; b) reduced percentage of young (i.e., nonbearing) trees in most major producing states; c) substantial decline in number of farms and acres in the southeastern regionhistorically the primary production area-yet substantial growth in the northern region of production; d) a national 3% increase in the number of pecan farms and 14% increase in acreage; and e) substantial demographic changes, such as the enhanced importance of the southwestern region including New Mexico with diminished importance of many southeastern states. States also drastically differ in degree of biennial bearing, as measured by the biennial bearing index (i.e., K = 0.04 - 0.73; where 0 = no production variation and 1 = maximum variation), average production efficiency of both orchards [Epa = 192 - 1,224 lb/acre (215 - 1,374 kg·ha-1)] and trees [Ept = 19 - 60 lb/tree (8.6 kg/tree)], variation in grower prices (cv = 18 - 36%), and relationship between price and national supply of pecan (r 2 = 0.94 - 0.03). For the pecan industry as a whole, average price received for nut-meats is as closely associated with national supply of pecan nut-meats as that of almond and pistachio and is far better than that of walnut-pecan's primary competitor. The supply of pecan meats on-hand at the beginning of the season, plus supply from the current season's crop, plus the price of walnut meats accounts for 80% of price variation in average United States pecan meat price.

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Heather Hasandras, Kimberly A. Moore and Lyn A. Gettys

( Mony et al., 2007 ; Sutton, 1990 ), whereas studies on the growth of southern naiad have focused on its roles in fish communities rather than on its growth. Because of their similarity, we questioned if we could use similar production protocols

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Glenn C. Wright

production again ( Colley, 1973 ). The USDA began importing offshoots from the Middle East and North Africa in the 1880s ( Nixon, 1950 ). Workers removed offshoots from the mother plant and camel caravans transported them to a railhead for further transport

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Michele R. Warmund

production and resistance to chestnut blight rather than for nut production ( Payne et al., 1983 ). Today, U.S. chestnut production is less than 1% of that produced worldwide [ U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Foreign Agricultural Serv., 2008 ]. Most of

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Nicolas Tremblay, Lucette LaFlamme and André Gosselin

111 WORKSHOP 17A Organic Production of Herbs and Medicinal Plants

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Robert F. Brzuszek, Richard L. Harkess and Susan J. Mulley

market in the region, native plants are gaining in popularity and use. Results indicate significant room for expansion in the production and marketing of native plant species. Too few wholesale nursery sources offer them, and insufficient quantities and

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Bernadine C. Strik, John R. Clark, Chad E. Finn and M. Pilar Bañados

eastern United States ( Clark, 1992 ), for a total of 4385 ha. In 1990, most of the blackberry production in the eastern United States was pick-your-own or prepicked for on-farm or local sales, and less than 2% was processed ( Clark, 1992 ). In contrast

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S. Alan Walters and Elizabeth A. Wahle

that sinigrin accounted for about 83% and 91% of total glucosinolates in horseradish roots and leaves, respectively; and, although horseradish clones differ for total glucosinolate content, little is known about the production of these sulfur