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Yulan Xiao and Toyoki Kozai

A photoautotrophic or sugar-free medium micropropagation system (PAM) using five large culture vessels (volume = 120 L each) with a forced ventilation unit for supplying CO2-enriched air was developed and applied to commercial production of calla lily (Zantedeschia elliottiana) and china fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantlets. The culture period of calla lily plantlets in the PAM was reduced by 50%, compared with that in a conventional, photomixotrophic micropropagation system (PMM) using small vessels each containing a sugar-containing medium. Percent survival ex vitro of calla lily plantlets from the PAM was 95%, while that from the PMM was 60%. The production cost of calla lily in the PAM was reduced by about 40%, compared with that in the PMM, and the initial investment per plantlet for the PAM was ≈10% lower than that for the PMM. The sales price of ex vitro acclimatized calla lily plantlet was increased by 25% due to its higher quality, compared with plantlets produced in the PMM.

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Hanna Y. Hanna and Kenneth D. Henderson

. Tomato fruit can be harvested at peak quality and sold to the consumer on the day of harvest at farmers' markets, roadside stands, local supermarkets, or on the producer's premises. However, producers have to reduce production cost and increase plant

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Kevin C. Power, Jay B. Fitzgerald, George E. Meyer and Dennis D. Schulte

A microcomputer program has been developed to keep records on energy, labor costs, product pricing, and revenue predictions for greenhouse and nursery production. The program manages plant production data, potentially enabling the grower to improve production and profits. The grower can use the program to determine how much it costs to produce individual plants, to ascertain labor costs and where to reallocate employees. Advertising and other indirect costs can be included to determine cost of production on a per-plant or per-square-foot basis.

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Esendugue Greg Fonsah, Gerard Krewer, Kerry Harrison and Michael Bruorton

in year 3 ( Table 6 ). Table 6. Estimated third-year establishment and maintenance cost per acre of producing southern highbush blueberries in soil in Georgia. Full production cost Year 4. In the fourth year, the blueberry field is assumed to be in

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Esendugue Greg Fonsah, Gerard Krewer, Kerry Harrison and Danny Stanaland

-year establishment and maintenance cost per acre of producing rabbiteye blueberries in Georgia in 2005. Full production cost: Year 4. In the fourth year, the rabbiteye blueberry field is assumed to be in full production. The combined mowing and pruning operations was

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Jonathan M. Frantz

Greenhouses that are well sealed can result in carbon dioxide (CO2) drawdown and suppressed plant growth. While growers can add supplemental CO2, it is unknown how supplemental CO2 fits within the framework of sustainable crop production in greenhouses. In this study, supplemental CO2 was used in combination with reduced temperatures to evaluate the productivity of ‘Grand Rapids’ lettuce (Latuca sativa) compared with a traditionally maintained, warmer, and well-insulated greenhouse without supplemental CO2 at a commercial facility. Simulations using Virtual Grower software based on identical greenhouses compared fuel use and carbon (C) consumed because of heating and CO2 supplementation. Models were verified with measurements in a well-sealed commercial greenhouse; CO2 quickly decreased to below 300 ppm in a nonsupplemented greenhouse containing plants. Supplemental CO2 boosted total leaf number and mass of lettuce even though temperatures were maintained 3 °F lower in elevated CO2 than in the traditional management scenario. Maintaining a cooler greenhouse but adding CO2 decreased total carbon (C) consumed (by combined fuel use and CO2 supplementation) by 7% during the 3-month season that required a well-sealed greenhouse. Additionally, fuel savings because of lower temperature set points paid for the cost of adding CO2. The use of CO2 enrichment should be considered as a tool in sustainable systems when its use can counteract the plant growth and development reductions brought on by lowered temperatures.

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Jeff S. Kuehny and Margaret J. McMahon

This decision case concerns production and marketing problems that many ornamental growers incur. At the retail level, popular ornamental crops are often used as loss leaders to draw the public into stores to make other purchases. As a result, retail buyers are concerned not with quality but with price and volume. To meet the needs of price-conscious buyers, growers may attempt to reduce their production costs by reducing the level of production inputs, with some sacrifice in product quality. The owners of Two Sisters Greenhouses must decide whether they are going to produce lower-quality plants, change marketing strategies, or grow alternative crops to retain their current profit margins. This case study was intended for use in greenhouse management, nursery management, and floriculture courses where students assume the role of a decisionmaker in poinsettia production and marketing.

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George E. Boyhan, Cecilia McGregor, Suzanne O’Connell, Johannah Biang and David Berle

There is a dearth of information on pepper (Capsicum annuum) variety production under organic conditions; therefore, a randomized complete block designed experiment of 13 pepper varieties were evaluated in 2016 and 2017 using organic production practices on land managed organically for the 6 previous years. Total yield, graded yield, and early yield were the main factors of interest. There were by-year interactions, so the data were analyzed separately for each year. All of the peppers evaluated except for ‘Sweet Chocolate’ were bell pepper types. The average total yield was 1229 and 1754 boxes/acre (28 lb/box) in 2016 and 2017, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences for total yield or early total yield in 2016. In 2017, the top five highest yielding varieties were Aristotle X3R®, Gridiron, King Arthur, Flavorburst, and Blitz. With the exception of ‘Flavorburst’, all of these entries were among the highest yielding for fancy fruit (≥3 inches diameter and 3.5 inches length). The greatest early yield in 2017 included ‘Aristotle X3R®’, ‘Flavorburst’, ‘Touchdown’, ‘Islander’, and ‘Gridiron’. In 2017, early yields of fancy fruit greater than 100 boxes/acre included ‘Aristotle X3R®’, ‘Red Knight X3R®’, ‘Blitz’, and ‘Gridiron’.

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Christine Yung-Ting Yen, Terri W. Starman, Yin-Tung Wang and Genhua Niu

accelerates the development of flower buds. A cooling treatment that precisely meets the saturated cooling requirement for flowering helps to save the production cost in cooling without slowing flower development. For short cooling durations, low

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Hanna Y. Hanna

in pine bark ( Table 4 ). Perlite can be recycled for many years to reduce production cost without a negative impact on yield ( Hanna, 2005 , 2006 ). Rockwool can be steam-sterilized and reused once and must then be disposed of because of fiber