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Kenneth Cropper, Gregg Munshaw and Michael Barrett

, pendimethalin, or prodiamine when there is a 24-h period of soil temperatures greater than 10 °C ( McCarty et al., 2001 ). Multiple applications may provide even greater crabgrass control, as Derr (2004) reported with prodiamine. While accurate timing of

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D. W. Wells, R. J. Constantin and J. W. Wells

Six prodiamine treatments, three applied alone and three applied in combination with methazole, were compared with oxyfluorfen/oryzalin, oxadiazon, and controls (weeded and non-weeded) on ornamental and weed species. Ornamentals included green liriope, Asiatic jasmine, serissa, gardenia, `Needlepoint' holly, Japanese yew, `Prostrata' juniper, and `Carror' azalea. Weeds grown in separate containers were goosegrass, crabgrass, pigweed, and prostrate spurge. At 13 days after treatment (DAT), oxadiazon and oxyfluorfen/oryzalin caused some contact burn on liriope, and the injury persisted until the 81 DAT rating. Methazole/prodiamine treatments caused chlorosis on gardenia leaf tips, with plants recovering by 61 DAT. These combinations also resulted in slight injury to azalea at the first rating, but the injury disappeared by the second rating. Control of goosegrass, crabgrass, and pigweed was good to excellent with all chemical treatments. Control of spurge using oxadiazon and oxyfluorfen/oryzalin decreased at 81 and 100 DAT.

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D. W. Wells, R. J. Constantin and J. W. Wells

Six prodiamine treatments, three applied alone and three applied in combination with methazole, were compared with oxyfluorfen/oryzalin, oxadiazon, and controls (weeded and non-weeded) on ornamental and weed species. Ornamentals included green liriope, Asiatic jasmine, serissa, gardenia, `Needlepoint' holly, Japanese yew, `Prostrata' juniper, and `Carror' azalea. Weeds grown in separate containers were goosegrass, crabgrass, pigweed, and prostrate spurge. At 13 days after treatment (DAT), oxadiazon and oxyfluorfen/oryzalin caused some contact burn on liriope, and the injury persisted until the 81 DAT rating. Methazole/prodiamine treatments caused chlorosis on gardenia leaf tips, with plants recovering by 61 DAT. These combinations also resulted in slight injury to azalea at the first rating, but the injury disappeared by the second rating. Control of goosegrass, crabgrass, and pigweed was good to excellent with all chemical treatments. Control of spurge using oxadiazon and oxyfluorfen/oryzalin decreased at 81 and 100 DAT.

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Peter H. Dernoeden

Festuca species are being seeded into golf course roughs and natural or out-of-bound areas as alternative turfgrasses to replace perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the mid-Atlantic region. The tolerance of fine-leaf fescues to herbicides targeted for annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) control, such as ethofumesate and prodiamine, is unknown. The objectives of this field study, therefore, were to assess the tolerance of `Rebel II' tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and the fine-leaf fescue species `Reliant' hard fescue (Festuca longifolia Thuill.), `Jamestown II' Chewings fescue (Festuca rubra L. ssp. commutata Gaud.), and `MX 86' blue sheep fescue (Festuca glauca L.) to various rates, combinations, and times of application of ethofumesate and prodiamine. `Rebel II' was most tolerant of ethofumesate; however, sequential rates ≥0.84 + 0.84 kg·ha-1 reduced quality for 1 or more weeks and 2.24 + 2.24 kg·ha-1 caused unacceptable injury. Single applications of ethofumesate at rates of 0.56, 0.84, and 1.12 kg·ha-1, and sequential treatments of 0.56 + 0.56 and 0.84 + 0.84 kg·ha-1 reduced `Reliant' quality temporarily. Sequential treatments of high rates (i.e., 1.12 + 1.12 and 2.24 + 2.24 kg·ha-1), however, significantly reduced `Reliant' cover. `Jamestown II' was very sensitive to ethofumesate, but recovered from single applications of 0.56, 0.84, and 1.12 kg·ha-1; sequential applications (≥0.84 + 0.84 kg·ha-1) caused unacceptable injury, and rates ≥1.12 + 1.12 kg·ha-1 caused significant loss of cover. The cultivar MX 86 tolerated single applications of 0.56 to 2.24 kg·ha-1 of ethofumesate, but sequential treatments generally reduced quality to unacceptable levels. In one study, `Jamestown II' and `MX 86' were more severely injured when ethofumesate (1.12 or 2.24 kg·ha-1) was applied in October rather than in November. The fescues generally best tolerated a single, November application of ethofumesate at ≤1.12 kg·ha-1. Prodiamine (0.73 kg·ha-1) caused only short-term reductions in quality of `Jamestown II', but was generally noninjurious to the other fescues. Ethofumesate tank-mixed with prodiamine (0.84 + 0.36 or 1.12 + 0.73 kg·ha-1) elicited some short-term reduction in quality, but the level of injury was generally acceptable and injured fescues had recovered by spring. Chemical names used: [±]2-ethoxy-2,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-5-benzofuranyl methanesulfonate (ethofumesate); N 3,N 3-di-n-propyl-2,4-dinitro-6-(trifluoromethyl)-m-phenylenediamine (prodiamine); S,S-dimethyl 2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)-3,5-pyridine-dicarbothioate (dithiopyr).

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Christopher A. Proctor, Matt D. Sousek, Aaron J. Patton, Daniel V. Weisenberger and Zachary J. Reicher

Crabgrass ( Digitaria spp.) is an annual grassy weed native to the lower 48 United States ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2011 ) and problematic in turf throughout the upper Midwest. Prodiamine [2,4-dinitro

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Edward Bush, Ann L. Gray, Virginia Thaxton and Allen Owings

Previous research has shown the effectiveness of prodiamine (FactorÆ)as a preemergent herbicide. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the efficacy and phytotoxicity of prodiamine applied to several woody ornamental and weed species. Phytotoxicity effects were evaluated on eight ornamental species: azalea (Rhododendron indicum `Mrs. G.G. Gerbing'), dwarf yaupon (Ilex vomitoria `Nana'), dwarf mondograss (Ophiopogon japonicus `Nana'), ixora (Ixora coccinea), lantana (Lantana camara `New Gold'), Southern live oak (Quercus virginiana), weeping fig (Ficus benjamina), and daylily (Hemerocallis fulva). Preemergent herbicide treatments (control-nontreated, 2 lbs aia Factor®, and 4 lbs aia Factor®) were applied to ornamentals twice during the experiment at twelve week intervals. There was a reduction in top dry weight for azalea and dwarf mondograss for both 2 and 4 lbs aia treatments. No significant growth reductions were measured for daylily, dwarf yaupon, ixora, lantana, live oak, and weeping fig. The efficacy experiment consisted of four weed species: barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgali), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), coffeeweed (Sesbania exaltata), and pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) and five preemergence herbicide treatments (control-nontreated, control-Rout® at 100 lbs/A, Factor® 1 lb aia, Factor® 2 lbs aia, and a tank mixture of Factor® 1 lb aia plus Gallery® 1 lb aia) applied to bark-filled containers. Twenty-five weed seeds of each species were broadcast over each container following herbicide applications. The high rate of Factor®, Rout®, and the combination of Factor®+Gallery® significantly reduced weed dry weight compared to the control. All preemergence herbicides significantly reduced weed counts and height in a similar manner.

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Patrick A. Jones, James T. Brosnan, Gregory K. Breeden, José J. Vargas, Brandon J. Horvath and John C. Sorochan

, taking an average of 6 d to reach 50% green cover. Many of the PRE herbicides used to control annual weeds in bermudagrass turf have been shown to reduce bermudagrass root growth, including prodiamine, indaziflam, and dithiopyr ( Jones et al., 2013

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Travis W. Gannon, Matthew D. Jeffries, James T. Brosnan, Gregory K. Breeden, Kevin A. Tucker and Gerald M. Henry

dithiopyr, indaziflam, oxadiazon, prodiamine, and pendimethalin are labeled for selective control of smooth crabgrass ( Digitaria ischaemum Schreb.) and large crabgrass [ Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.] in turf ( Anonymous, 2012a , 2012b , 2012c

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Peter H. Dernoeden

Annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is an intractable weed problem on golf courses. Much has been written about annual bluegrass, but there is little documentation of regional germination period(s) and the proper timing of preemergence herbicides targeted for the control of the annual biotype (P. annua ssp. annua [L.] Timm.=AB). The objectives of this field study were to determine the optimum prodiamine rate and timing for effective AB control. The turf was a mature stand of `Kenblue' Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) maintained under conditions similar to those imposed for golf course roughs. Three rates of prodiamine (0.36,0.73, and 1.1 kg·ha-1) were applied on three dates in 1995 (11 Aug., 14 Sept., and 13 Oct.) and 1996 (29 Aug., 16 and 30 Sept.). All rates applied 11 Aug. or 14 Sept. 1995, and 29 Aug. or 16 Sept. 1996 effectively controlled AB. None of the rates applied 13 Oct. 1995 reduced AB cover, and the 0.36 kg·ha-1 rate applied 30 Sept. 1996 provided relatively poor AB control. Data and observations indicated that the major germination period for AB was between late September and early December. Effective AB control was achieved whenever prodiamine, regardless of rate, was applied between mid-August and mid-September. These prodiamine rates and this application window may be effective only in relatively high cut turf (i.e., >5.0 cm) in the mid-Atlantic region. Chemical names used: O,O-bis(1-methylethyl) S-{2-[(phenylsulfonyl)amino]ethyl} phosphorodithioate (bensulide); N 3,N 3-di-n-propyl-2,4-dinitro-6-(trifluoromethyl)-m-phenylenediamine (prodiamine).

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Peter H. Dernoeden

Annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is an intractable weed problem on golf courses. Much has been written about annual bluegrass, but there is little documentation of regional germination period(s) and the proper timing of preemergence herbicides targeted for the control of the annual biotype (P. annua ssp. annua [L.] Timm. = AB). The objectives of this field study were to determine the optimum prodiamine rate and timing for effective AB control. The turf was a mature stand of `Kenblue' Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) maintained under conditions similar to those imposed for golf course roughs. Three rates of prodiamine (0.36, 0.73, and 1.1 kg·ha-1) were applied on three dates in 1995 (11 Aug., 14 Sept., and 13 Oct.) and 1996 (29 Aug., 16 and 30 Sept.). All rates applied 11 Aug. or 14 Sept. 1995, and 29 Aug. or 16 Sept. 1996 effectively controlled AB. None of the rates applied 13 Oct. 1995 reduced AB cover, and the 0.36 kg·ha-1 rate applied 30 Sept. 1996 provided relatively poor AB control. Data and observations indicated that the major germination period for AB was between late September and early December. Effective AB control was achieved whenever prodiamine, regardless of rate, was applied between mid-August and mid-September. These prodiamine rates and this application window may be effective only in relatively high cut turf (i.e., >5.0 cm) in the mid-Atlantic region. Chemical names used: O,O-bis(1-methylethyl) S-{2-[(phenylsulfonyl)amino]ethyl} phosphorodithioate (bensulide); N 3,N 3-di-n-propyl-2,4-dinitro-6-(trifluoromethyl)-m-phenylenediamine (prodiamine).