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Sang In Shim, Jun-Cheol Moon, Cheol Seong Jang, Paul Raymer, and Wook Kim

germination is controlled by many environmental factors and innate conditions, which subsequently affect seedling establishment. Seeds are often placed to specific conditions unfavorable for germination. Therefore, seed priming is commonly used to improve seed

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Patrick T. Smith and B. Greg Cobb

Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Keystone Resistant Giant #3) seeds were imbibed (primed) in salt solutions to determine a) what concentrations would inhibit radicle emergence and b) the influence this delay in radicle emergence would have on subsequent germination. Seeds were primed for 17 days at 23C in petri dishes with KNO3, KCl, NaCl, K2SO4, Na2SO4, 1 NaCl: 1 CaCl2 (mol/mol), Ca(NO3)2, CaCl2, Na2HPO4, and K2HPO4 in 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 300 mm of the salts. Germination was not inhibited in the 10- to 100-mm salt range, although most 200- and all 300-mm solutions reduced radicle emergence to <5.0%. The time to 50% germination (T50) of these primed seeds in water significantly (P < 0.01) decreased, when compared to unprimed seeds, and a negative correlation (r = – 0.98) was observed between this reduction and the osmotic potential of the solutions. Solutions with the highest osmotic potentials most severely reduced T50 without reducing the final germination percentage. For seeds primed in K2SO4 or Na2SO4 (200 and 300 mm) through 18 days, the reduction in T50 and duration of priming were negatively correlated (r = - 0.99). Seeds soaked in double distilled water and then dried germinated faster than controls, but not as fast as seeds primed in salt solutions. Priming of pepper seeds in this study was dependent on the osmotic potential of the solution, rather than a specific salt, and the duration of treatment.

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M. Khademi, D. S. Koranski, and P. T. Karlovich

NaCl, KNO3 (0.3, 0.4, 0.5M), KH2P O4 (0.4, 0.5, 0.6M), and PEG 8000 (320 to 370 g/L with the increment of 10g/L) were used for priming Petunia `Ultra White' seeds for three to six days. Seeds were germinated in a growth chamber at 25C. Germination was recorded for seven days and the number of acceptable seedlings (seedlings with open cotyledon and normal root) was counted on the day seven. KH2P O4 at 0.6M was the best salt treatment. Rate of germination was improved by salt priming but the number of acceptable seedlings was lower than the control. Addition of GA (5 ppm) to the salt treatment was not effective. More abnormal seedlings were observed when seeds were primed in aerated salt solutions than when primed in petri dishes. Aerated PEG at 325 g/L for three days and 365 g/L for six days gave the best results. Priming in PEG improved percent of germination, rate of germination, and number of acceptable seedling as compared to control. Primed seeds lost some of the advantages of priming during 24hr air drying (22C), however quality was maintained when dried at 10C. Drying primed seed in 80% R.H. was not effective.

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M. Khademi, D. S. Koranski, and P. T. Karlovich

NaCl, KNO3 (0.3, 0.4, 0.5M), KH2P O4 (0.4, 0.5, 0.6M), and PEG 8000 (320 to 370 g/L with the increment of 10g/L) were used for priming Petunia `Ultra White' seeds for three to six days. Seeds were germinated in a growth chamber at 25C. Germination was recorded for seven days and the number of acceptable seedlings (seedlings with open cotyledon and normal root) was counted on the day seven. KH2P O4 at 0.6M was the best salt treatment. Rate of germination was improved by salt priming but the number of acceptable seedlings was lower than the control. Addition of GA (5 ppm) to the salt treatment was not effective. More abnormal seedlings were observed when seeds were primed in aerated salt solutions than when primed in petri dishes. Aerated PEG at 325 g/L for three days and 365 g/L for six days gave the best results. Priming in PEG improved percent of germination, rate of germination, and number of acceptable seedling as compared to control. Primed seeds lost some of the advantages of priming during 24hr air drying (22C), however quality was maintained when dried at 10C. Drying primed seed in 80% R.H. was not effective.

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Xu-Wen Jiang, Cheng-Ran Zhang, Wei-Hua Wang, Guang-Hai Xu, and Hai-Yan Zhang

and suitable measures should be developed to enhance seed germination in saline soils and facilitate plant establishment. Seed priming is considered a critical and vital technique for enhancing stress tolerance through pretreatment with stimulating

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Clíssia Barboza da Silva, Julio Marcos-Filho, Pablo Jourdan, and Mark A. Bennett

). Better seed performance after seed priming is, in part, the result of a greater accumulation of germination metabolites ( Sliwinska et al., 2009 ; Varier et al., 2010 ), and also due to the efficient repair of damage to DNA and membranes, which is

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Ken Takahata, Yoko Mine, Atsukiyo Karimata, and Hiroyuki Miura

temperature are very effective, but high purchase, maintenance, and operating costs limit their use in many agricultural nurseries. In seed priming, small amounts of water are supplied to seeds so that the water can be taken up through osmotic or matric forces

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Qi Zhang, Kevin Rue, and Jeanna Mueller

., 2001 ). Rapid and uniform seed germination will help plants establish a healthy stand. Seed priming has been used to enhance seed germination and seedling growth in various plants ( Farooq et al., 2006 ). During the priming period, seed is hydrated with

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Kun Jia, Michelle DaCosta, and J. Scott Ebdon

( Murphy et al., 2005 ). Seed priming is a preplant method of promoting partial germination before planting as seed. During seed priming (i.e., controlled soaking treatment), the emergence of the radicle is initiated, but the process is interrupted

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Jabe E. Warren and Mark A. Bennett

Drum priming enhances seed performance without the waste and additional materials associated with conventional osmotic or matric priming techniques. Sweet corn (Zea mays L.) se (`White D' Lite') and sh2 (`WSS-4948') endosperm seeds were hydrated using drum priming at 25 °C for 6 hours. During each cycle, 125-g seed samples were exposed to 1.6, 3.2, 4.8, or 6.0 mL of distilled water and then rotated in a drum for 1 hour to ensure uniform uptake. At the end of this period, samples of 100 seeds (each) were removed and moisture content was determined. Drum priming hydrated all seedlots gradually, with increasing time required at reduced water levels for individual seedlots to achieve the desired moisture content (25% to 30%). Drum priming may provide a better alternative to conventional systems of priming.