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Lisa Tang, Shweta Chhajed, and Tripti Vashisth

-Cardwell, 2014 ; Iglesias et al., 2007 ). Increased preharvest fruit drop together with tree decline due to C Las infection results in a great reduction in yield and difficulty in field management of HLB-affected groves ( Albrigo and Stover, 2015 ; Bové, 2006

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Leo G. Albrigo and Ed W. Stover

drop of citrus ( Fig. 1 ) has become more severe ( Table 1 ). The USDA (2015) estimated preharvest fruit drop at 18% and 23% of the total crop for early-midseason (E-M) sweet orange cultivars (mainly Hamlin, Midsweet, and Pineapple) and 22% and 31

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Rongcai Yuan and Jianguo Li

, 1947 ; Yuan and Carbaugh, 2007 ). AVG suppresses fruit ethylene production, reduces preharvest fruit drop, and delays fruit ripening in apples ( Autio and Bramlage, 1982 ; Bangerth, 1978 ; Greene, 2005 ; Schupp and Greene, 2004 ; Yuan and Carbaugh

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Rongcai Yuan and David H. Carbaugh

synthetic auxins reduced preharvest fruit drop of apples ( Gardner et al., 1940 ; Marini et al., 1993 ) and oranges ( Gardner et al., 1950 ; Zur and Goren, 1977 ). One application of naphthalene acidic acid (NAA) may delay apple fruit drop for ≈10 to 14 d

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R.E. Byers, D.H. Carbaugh, and L.D. Combs

Combinations of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, ReTain) and NAA gave better control of fruit drop of `Golden Delicious' than either alone. When the full rate of ReTain (50 g/A) was compared to a reduced rate of ReTain (86 g/ha) plus NAA, equivalent control of fruit drop of `Golden Delicious' resulted. ReTain delayed softening and starch depletion of `Golden Delicious' fruit. NAA in some cases promoted earlier fruit maturity; but when used in combination with ReTain, maturity was similar to ReTain-treated fruit. Fruit with the highest firmness and starch came out of cold storage in the best condition. Neither 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP, EthylBloc) or NAA inhibited fruit drop of `Golden Delicious' fruit when applied at harvest; but previous ReTain and NAA data indicate that late applications are frequently much less effective than if applied 4 weeks before harvest. Ethephon spray treatments caused more rapid and extensive fruit drop than the control. Trees gassed or sprayed with EthylBloc before ethephon sprays also dropped rapidly. `Golden Delicious' fruit on the tree were dramatically maintained firmer by the EthylBloc gas, and to a lesser extent by EthylBloc sprays by 19.1 N and 10.2 N firmness, respectively, tested on 28 Oct. Starch was maintained by the EthylBloc gas, but not by the sprays. These data indicated that EthylBloc applied as a gas or spray did have a physiological affect but did not control fruit drop. Fruit diameter, soluble solids and color did not appear to be affected. Further study of earlier applications of EthylBloc or combinations with fruit drop control agents may be needed to get fruit drop control. NAA plus Silwet L-77 inhibited fruit drop of `Law Rome', but none of the EthylBloc sprays inhibited fruit drop when applied at harvest. Previous data with ReTain and NAA indicated that late applications are frequently much less effective than if applied 4 weeks before harvest. EthylBloc sprays applied 21 Oct. dramatically maintained fruit firmness tested on 3 Nov. Starch was not maintained by the EthylBloc gas, but starch had almost disappeared by the application time on 21 Oct. Fruit diameter, soluble solids, and color did not appear to be affected. Further study of earlier applications of EthylBloc may be needed to demonstrate fruit drop control. Shading trees with 92% polypropylene shade material for 3 or 7 days caused more rapid fruit abscission at 7 days than 3 days and both were greater than the control.

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Lisa Tang, Sukhdeep Singh, and Tripti Vashisth

poor juice quality ( Baldwin et al., 2010 ; Bové, 2006 ; Johnson et al., 2014 ). Furthermore, HLB increases the incidence of preharvest fruit drop, which refers to the abscission of physiologically mature fruit (at the stage III of fruit development

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Soon-Il Kwon, Jeong-Hee Kim, Sun-Ae Kim, Young-Soon Kwon, and Jinwook Lee

, there was no preharvest fruit drop in ‘RubyS’ even though fruit drop was high in ‘Alpsotome’, the mother parent. The fruit flesh is cream-colored, aromatic, crispy, and juicy. Flesh firmness of ‘RubyS’ is 78.2 N at harvest, similar to that of ‘Alpsotome

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Hong Chen, Greg McCollum, Elizabeth Baldwin, and Jinhe Bai

al., 2010 ). As HLB severity increases, preharvest fruit drop becomes an increasing problem, which has contributed to declining yields in Florida, especially in the last few years ( Bassanezi et al., 2011 ; Gottwald, 2010 ; USDA NASS, 2015 ; Zhao

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Raquel González-Herranz, Kimberley A. Cathline, Matthew W. Fidelibus, and Jacqueline K. Burns

harvested within 2 or 3 DAT to avoid excessive preharvest fruit drop and to capitalize on the significant population of fruit that had loosened by then. Here again, there are parallels with Citrus sinensis , from which the most rapid rate of fruit drop

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A. Talaie and H. Arouie

To determine the effect of NAD on prevention of preharvest fruit drop of `Golden Delicious' apples, a range of studies were conducted for 2 years in the Kamalabad area in Karaj City-Iran. In this experiment NAD at 10 and 15 ppm concentrations were applied in two intervals of 2 and 3 weeks before harvesting (131 and 138 days after full bloom) and at the same time nontreated trees were used as control plants. The results indicate that applying NAD reduces the preharvest fruit drop percentage and then is followed by the yield increase. Fruit drop percentage, fruit weight, length, diameter and volume changes, amount of soluble solid material, total sugar content, total acid content, fruit juice pH, and flesh firmness were measured and analyzed in this experiment. According to the results of this experiment using NAD not only prevents the preharvest fruit drop of `Golden Delicious' apples, but any unsuitable changes on the qualitative property of the fruit are avoided and there even is quality improvements in some cases compared to control trees.