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William Pelletier, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Maria Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes, and Jean-Pierre Émond

steps during the distribution chain. The first link of the strawberry distribution chain consists of removing the field heat from the fruit as soon as possible after harvest, usually by forced air cooling. The importance of prompt precooling on

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JoAnn Robbins and Patrick P. Moore

The effects of delayed precooling on fresh red raspberry fruit during storage was determined. Precooling was delayed for 0.5 to 12 hours, followed by cold storage for 8 days, with subsequent storage at 20C for 24 hours. Weight loss was greater with increasing delays of precooling. Fruit that lost more weight during the delay period lost less during the subsequent S-day storage at 0C. The exception was fruit held for 12 hours before precooling. Weight loss during the final 24 hours at 20C showed no pattern. Cumulative weight loss at the end of the storage treatments was similar regardless of delay of precooling. Fruit strength was reduced by any delay of precooling. The effect of delayed precooling on color was not consistent in the 2 years using different cultivars. The results indicate that fruit should be precooled as quickly as possible after harvest for long-distance fresh marketing.

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Todd J. Cavins and John M. Dole

Narcissus L. `Music Hall', N. `Tahiti', Tulipa L. `Couleur Cardinal', and T. `White Emperor' bulbs were precooled at 5 °C for 0 or 5 weeks and planted 15, 30, or 45 cm deep (from bulb base) into raised ground beds under 0%, 30%, or 60% shade. Plant growth was monitored for two consecutive years after planting. Precooling reduced the percentage of T. `White Emperor' that flowered but did not affect flowering percentage of the other cultivars. Precooling delayed anthesis in one or both years for all cultivars. The greatest percentage of bulbs flowered when planted 15 cm deep and the 45-cm planting depth reduced flowering percentage. Increasing planting depth delayed anthesis for all cultivars. Increasing shade increased stem lengths in one or both years for all cultivars, but did not influence flowering percentage. Perennialization was low for all cultivars regardless of treatment. Cultivar differences in perennialization occurred; in year 2 up to 30% of N. `Tahiti' bulbs flowered vs. 32% for `Music Hall' and up to 30% of T. `White Emperor' bulbs flowered vs. only 22% of `Couleur Cardinal'.

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Charles Magee, Johnny Carter, and Clarence Johnson Jr

During the summer of 1988, a study was conducted to determine the effect of an inexpensive reusable styrofoam container on the percent weight loss in collards (bunch and head) after 30 days in a walk-in cooler. This container was designed and constructed for precooling, shipping, and storing fruits and vegetables. The insulated container was provided with a lid-mounted ice cavity that was removable and could be replaced through an access door without removing the lid. The ice cavity melted and was dispersed throughout the container onto the collards. The three treatments used in this study were (1) no top (2) top without ice, and (3) top with ice. Results indicated that both the bunches and heads responded similarly to treatments. The top with ice treatment significantly reduced percent weight loss when compared to the other treatments (top no ice and no top).

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Jennifer R. DeEll, Clément Vigneault, Frédérique Favre, Timothy J. Rennie, and Shahrokh Khanizadeh

The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of vacuum cooling and temperature on the quality and storage life of mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). Sprouts in micro-perforated bags were either not precooled or vacuum cooled to 9, 6, or 3 °C, and stored for 7 days at 1, 3, or 6 °C. Vacuum-cooled bean sprouts lost more weight than sprouts not precooled, and the weight loss was greater when the sprouts were cooled to lower temperatures. However, the total loss never exceeded 5% and no apparent signs of shrivel were observed. Vacuum cooling resulted in greater product freshness after 4 days of storage, but the effect was nonsignificant after 7 days. Storage temperature had greater influence on bean sprout quality than did cooling temperature, with greater freshness and whiter hypocotyls at the lower temperatures. However, blackening of cotyledons increased as the storage temperature decreased.

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Abraham H. Halevy, Eitan Shlomo, and Ofra Ziv

Experiments aiming to adapt the perennial balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorus) as a commercial cut flower crop were conducted for 4 years under various growing conditions: four controlled-temperature rooms at two photoperiods in a phytotron, heated and unheated greenhouses, and a saran net-house (15% shade). Best flower yield was obtained following crown cooling for 12 weeks at 2 to 4 °C. Platycodon is a day-neutral plant, but produce more flowering stems under long days. Flower initiation and development is enhanced with increased growing temperature from 17/12 °C (day/night) to 27/22 °C. At very high temperatures (32/24 °C), however, only a few flowers are formed. Best quality stems were produced at 12 to 14 °C night temperature. At higher night temperatures, flowering stems were thin and weak. Gibberellin treatments to the crowns and the plants did not affect flowering time. Chemical name used: gibberellin (GA3).

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Ana Victoria Torres-Penaranda and Mikal E. Saltveit

Freshly harvested asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears were exposed to an anaerobic N2 atmosphere for 0, 2, 4, or 6 hours at 2.5 or 20C and then returned to 2.5C. Carbon dioxide production was measured each day, starting 3 days before and ending 11 days after the treatment. Significant increases in CO2 production relative to 0-hour controls were found within 1 day of treatment at 20C and were directly proportional to the duration of the anaerobic exposure. At 2.5C, CO2 production relative to the 0-hour control was stimulated by the 2- and 4-hour treatments and depressed by the 6-hour treatment, with the relative rate of production inversely proportional to the duration of the anaerobic treatment. A decrease in CO2 production occurred 7 days after N2 treatment, regardless of temperature. A sensory panel evaluated effects of treatments on appearance quality 7 and 15 days after treatment and on taste quality 4 days after treatment. Judges could not detect any significant differences between anaerobic treatments and control. No significant difference was found in the percent of decayed asparagus among treatments as detected by visual evaluation 6 days after treatment. It appears that exposure to an anaerobic N2 atmosphere for up to 6 hours was not detrimental to the storability or quality of harvested asparagus spears. These results indicate that cooling with vaporized liquid N2, during which an anaerobic atmosphere could be produced before the spears were significantly cooled, would not reduce subsequent quality or storability.

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Jerry C. Leyte and Charles F. Forney

Forced-air cooling rates of highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) packaged in 6-oz (177-mL) or 1-pt (473-mL) clamshell containers were affected by positions of vent holes in corrugated flats. Most rapid cooling occurred in flats with vents across the top of the flat. Additional vents aligned in front of clamshells resulted in more rapid and uniform cooling than vents placed between clamshells. Vent holes in the bottom of flats had no effect on cooling rates. Clamshells cooled more slowly in the front of the pallet where cold air entered than in the back of the pallet where cold air exited. Fruit in 6-oz clamshells cooled faster than fruit in 1-pt clamshells.

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Wagner A. Vendrame, Virginia S. Carvalho, José M.M. Dias, and Ian Maguire

) supplemented with 0.4 M sucrose (pH 5.7). The high concentration of PVS2 prevents ice crystallization during cryopreservation. Treatments consisted of pollinia left in PVS2 either at room temperature (27 ± 2 °C) or precooled in ice (0 °C) for 1, 2, 3, or 4 h

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Ludwika Kawa and August A. De Hertogh

Shoot apical meristems of Freesia ×hybrida Klatt `Rossini' reached the reproductive state after 3 weeks of precooling at 9C. Meristems isolated after 6 and 7 weeks of precooling showed the development of the initial four florets of the inflorescence.