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John F. Murphy and Fenny Dane

Plant viruses are extremely difficult to manage in vegetable crops, particularly those viruses transmitted by aphids (Aphididae) in a nonpersistent manner. Viruses in the genus Potyvirus [e.g., papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), watermelon mosaic virus

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Lourdes Cervantes-Dl̀az, Emma Zavaleta-Mejl̀a, Alejandra Gutièrrez-Espinosa, and J. Antonio Santizo-Rincan

Alstroemeria (Alstroemeria spp.) is cultivated for cut flowers. Traditional propagation methods are by division of rhizomes from mature plants, so that viruses occurring in the crop can be multiplied and cause a decrease in the quality and production. The objective of this work was to obtain Alstroemeria cv. Rosario plants free of Alstromeria Mosaic Potyvirus (AlMV) by in vitro culture of shoots and thermotherapy. The best percentage of explants without contamination was obtained when adding the disinfectant PPM (1%) to the medium Murashige-Skoog (MS) while the best induction of buds was obtained when using explants of 1.5 cm. in length. In vitro multiplication of shoots was best in treatments with 2iP (isopentenyl adenine), BA (benzyladenine), and zeatin (4.4, 6.1, and 6.6 buds per explant, respectively). Rhizogenesis was observed in rhizomes growing in MS with 4.9 μM AIB (indole butyric acid) and 1.5 g·L-1 of sugar. Sixty-seven percent of plants growing in vitro did not react to AlMV antiserum and did not show particles and viral inclusions. Thermotherapy treatments of 45, 50, and 55 °C during different periods of time produced from 25% to 87.5% of plants that did not react to AlMV antiserum and did not show virus particles or cytoplasmic inclusions.

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F. Gilbert-Albertini, M. Pitrat, and H. Lecoq

Zucchini yellow fleck virus (ZYFV) is a potyvirus that occurs in cucurbits grown in some Mediterranean countries. `Marketer' cucumber responded to ZYFV infection with a severe mosaic, stunting, and leaf and fruit deformation. A high level of resistance to this virus was found in a single plant selection of `Taichung Mou Gua' (TMG) cucumber from Taiwan. In F2 and backcross populations involving TMG × `Marketer', the resistance to ZYFV was determined to be conferred by a single recessive gene, to which the symbol zyf is assigned.

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Axel O. Ramírez-Madera and Michael J. Havey

genetic uniformity exists in cucumber for potyvirus resistance that could potentially be overcome by the viruses. Table 2. Three amino acid variants across the eight exons of the proposed candidate gene vacuolar protein sorting–associated protein 4-like

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Giseiry Rosa-Valentín, Linda Wessel-Beaver, and Jose Carlos V. Rodrigues

the latter was characterized using the coat protein (CP) and not the P1 protein. The CP region of the genome is the most widely used for Potyvirus ( Adams et al., 2005 ; Shukla and Ward, 1988 ). The ZYMV-PR CP gene fragment showed a high percentage

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Amnon Levi, John Coffey, Laura Massey, Nihat Guner, Elad Oren, Yaakov Tadmor, and Kai-shu Ling

PRSV-W, previously known as watermelon mosaic virus-1 (WMV-1), is an important potyvirus causing significant economic damage to cucurbit crops ( Bateson et al., 2002 ). Occurrence of PRSV-W in cucurbit fields coincides with increased aphid

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Karen R. Harris, Kai-Shu Ling, W. Patrick Wechter, and Amnon Levi

strains may be controlled by genes on different linkage regions. Resistance to different virus was observed in a pepper genotype possessing two genes that confer resistance to different strains of the potato potyvirus Y ( Dogimont et al., 1996 ). If the

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Eileen Kabelka and Rebecca Grumet

Cucumbers and other cucurbit crops are subject to severe losses due to an array of potyviruses, including zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and the watermelon strain of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W). Sources of resistance to these viruses have been identified within the cucumber germplasm, including resistance to ZYMV, WMV, and PRSV in `TMG-l'; resistance to PRSV in `Surinam'; and to ZYMV in `Dina'. In this study, we sought to determine the allelic relationships between resistance to PRSV in `Surinam' and `TMG' and resistance to ZYMV in `Dina' and `TMG'. Segregation ratios among F1, F2, and backcross progeny of `Surinam' and `TMG' indicated that the alleles are at the same locus. Similarly, progeny analysis indicates that the alleles for ZYMV resistance in `Dina' and `TMG' are at the same locus. In each case, however, the alleles appear to differ from one another with respect to dominance relationships, symptom expression, and/or response to different viral strains. We are further characterizing these differences by screening progeny of crosses to a common susceptible parent.

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Rejane L. Guimarães and Hector E. Flores

Quechua farmers have cultivated mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruiz & Pavon) and other tuber crops for thousands of years. The practice of trading seed tubers may have contributed to dispersal of viral diseases, such as the tropaeolum mosaic virus (TropMV). We surveyed 17 accessions of mashua collected from Quechua farmers in the provinces of Cuzco and Ayacucho, Peru. Most cross-reacted with the TropMV antibody and showed viral disease symptoms. Significant differences were observed between accessions from Cuzco and Ayacucho, with respect to virus infection and tuber yield under greenhouse conditions. Of the accessions from Cuzco, 87% displayed viral symptoms, while only 22% from Ayacucho showed symptoms. Fewer tubers from Cuzco generated mature plants. In turn, those mature plants produced lower tuber yields. The practice of trading seed tubers may be advantageous for promoting crop diversity but can be harmful when diseased seed tubers are being traded. A program to generate and distribute virus-free seed tubers among Andean farmers would contribute to higher crop yields while preserving local customs and crop diversity.

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T. Wai and R. Grumet

The inbred cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) line TMG-1 is resistant to three potyviruses: zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and the watermelon strain of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W). In this study we sought to determine the genetics of resistance to PRSV-W. TMG-1 was crossed with WI-2757, an inbred line susceptible to all three viruses. Segregation data indicated that resistance to PRSV-W was due to a single dominant gene (proposed designation, Prsv-2). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) data suggested that the mechanism of resistance to PRSV-W differs from that for ZYMV and WMV, and may be better described as tolerance. Although the plants were free of symptoms, high PRSV-W titers existed in young expanding leaves of the TMG-1 plants and the WI-2757 × TMG-1 F1 progeny.