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R.G. Linderman and E.A. Davis

aerated-steam treatment experiment, as well as a sandy loam soil, was used for treatments with different rates of metam sodium. The potting medium was placed into 20 × 20-cm resealable polyethylene bags (600 cm 3 per bag) and was moistened with 200 mL of

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Maria Papafotiou, Barbara Avajianneli, Costas Michos, and Iordanis Chatzipavlidis

and manipulation of the pH is needed to determine the factors that affect red pigmentation and anthocyanin concentration in plants grown in media with CGC. The current work suggests that CGC can replace 50% of peat in a potting medium with perlite

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Mark A. Nash, Tim P. Brubaker, and Billy W. Hipp

Expanded shale and peat moss were mixed in 5 ratios and evaluated as potting media for Petunia and Impatiens. Two grades of shale (coarse and fine) were used. Bulk density increased linearly with increasing shale whereas total pore space and container capacity increased linearly with increasing peat. Air space of peat-fine shale was consistently lower than that of peat-coarse shale when the peat/shale ratio was the same. Container capacity of peat-fine shale was consistently higher than that of peat-coarse shale when the peat/shale ratio was the same. Growth and quality of both bedding plants increased quadratically with increasing peat in peat-coarse shale and increased linearly with increasing peat in peat-fine shale. Highest growth and quality of both plants were found in peat-coarse shale media with at least 50% peat and in peat-fine shale media with at least 75% peat.

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Naveen Hyder, James J. Sims, and Stephen N. Wegulo

Coir has become popular as a potting medium in greenhouse and nursery production. Qualities of coir that make it a good peat substitute include high water holding capacity, excellent drainage, physical resilience, and the fact that it is a renewable

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Richard J. McAvoy

Root-zone and plant canopy temperatures were continuously monitored as a poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex JSI.) crop was grown in the greenhouse under warm day/cool night [(+) DT-NT] or cool day/warm night [(-) DT-NT] temperature regimes. Day temperatures were imposed from 0900 to 1700 hr. Light levels photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) and outside ambient air temperatures were also monitored. Temperature differences between the root-zone and plant canopy microenvironments were most extreme during the night-to-day and day-to-night temperature transition periods. The temperature difference between the plant canopy and the root zone following temperature transition periods had been previously identified as a critical factor affecting stem elongation. Overall poinsettia height was consistently shorter under the (-) DT-NT than under the (+) DT-NT environment.

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Haytham Z. Zaiter, Dermot P. Coyne, Ralph B. Clark, and James R. Steadman

Nine bean cultivars/lines were grown in a Tripp sandy-clay loam (high pH), a Sharpsburg silty clay loam (neutral pH), and a potting mix (equal volume of sand, soil [Sharpsburg silty clay loam], vermiculite and moss pest) (low pH) in greenhouse (one experiment), growth chamber (two experiments), and field (two experiments) in Lincoln, NE, in order to evaluate the leaf reaction of the plants to a Nebraska rust (Uromyces appendiculatus var. appendiculatus) isolate US85-NP-10-1. A factorial arrangement of soil media and cultivars/lines in a randomized complete block design was used in the greenhouse and growth chamber experiments, while a split-plot design (soil media as main plots and cultivars/lines as sub-plots) was used in the field experiments. Significant differences were observed for rust pustule size of cultivars/lines grown on the three different soil media. Plants grown on potting mix medium showed significant Increases in rust pustule size compared with Tripp (high pH) or Sharpsburg silty clay loam soils (neutral pH). A significant interaction occurred between soil media and cultivars/lines for the rust reaction. A positive correlation (R= +0.5) was observed between the increased concentration of C1 and Mn,, and a negative correlation for lower K (R+ -0.44) and soil pH in the potting mix and larger rust pustule size of leaves. These results have implications for plant breeders and pathologists involved in evaluating bean progenies and lines for rust resistance.

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Haytham Z. Zaiter, Dermot P. Coyne, Ralph B. Clark, and James R. Steadman

Nine bean cultivars/lines were grown in a Tripp sandy-clay loam (high pH), a Sharpsburg silty clay loam (neutral pH), and a potting mix (equal volume of sand, soil [Sharpsburg silty clay loam], vermiculite and moss pest) (low pH) in greenhouse (one experiment), growth chamber (two experiments), and field (two experiments) in Lincoln, NE, in order to evaluate the leaf reaction of the plants to a Nebraska rust (Uromyces appendiculatus var. appendiculatus) isolate US85-NP-10-1. A factorial arrangement of soil media and cultivars/lines in a randomized complete block design was used in the greenhouse and growth chamber experiments, while a split-plot design (soil media as main plots and cultivars/lines as sub-plots) was used in the field experiments. Significant differences were observed for rust pustule size of cultivars/lines grown on the three different soil media. Plants grown on potting mix medium showed significant Increases in rust pustule size compared with Tripp (high pH) or Sharpsburg silty clay loam soils (neutral pH). A significant interaction occurred between soil media and cultivars/lines for the rust reaction. A positive correlation (R= +0.5) was observed between the increased concentration of C1 and Mn,, and a negative correlation for lower K (R+ -0.44) and soil pH in the potting mix and larger rust pustule size of leaves. These results have implications for plant breeders and pathologists involved in evaluating bean progenies and lines for rust resistance.

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Mathews L. Paret, Ryo Kubota, Daniel M. Jenkins, and Anne M. Alvarez

released into drainage water when infected ginger plants were grown in potting medium ( Paret et al., 2008a ). However, no studies have reported survival of the ginger strains of Rs in field soil following different types of inoculation and under different

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M. Papafotiou, G. Kargas, and I. Lytra

Research was carried out to evaluate composted olive-mill waste as a peat substitute in foliage potted plant production. Rooted cuttings of Codiaeum variegatum (L.) A. Juss and Syngonium podophyllum Schott were grown for 5 months and Ficus benjamina L. for 10 months in media containing olive-mill waste compost (OWC), sphagnum peat and perlite in 1:3:4, 1:1:2, and 3:1:4 ratio (by volume), respectively, and their foliage and root growth was determined and compared to a control medium of 1 peat: 1 perlite (by volume). When up to 75% of peat in the control medium was replaced by OWC, C. variegatum foliage and root growth were similar compared with the control, while a 50% peat replacement gave the best growth. Syngonium podophyllum was more sensitive to peat replacement compared to C. variegatum, as only 25% of peat could be replaced by OWC without any reduction in foliage growth. The dry weight of the roots was not affected in all media tested. In F. benjamina, peat could be replaced up to 75% without effects on plant height and lateral shoot number, while the length of the laterals was progressively reduced with increasing OWC level. However, only at the highest OWC level (75% peat replacement) the laterals were shorter compared with the control. There was also a progressive reduction of main stem diameter, foliage fresh weight, and root dry weight with increasing OWC level in the medium. Even the lowest OWC level (25% peat replacement) caused a decrease of foliage and root weight compared with the control, with no effect though on plant visual quality. Even a 25% peat replacement by OWC caused an increase in bulk density. A considerable decrease of total porosity and readily available water were measured in media where 50% or 75% of peat was replaced by OWC. The pH of the medium with the highest OWC level was high during the first 4 months of culture compared to the other media. The electrical conductivity initially related to OWC level, but it decreased to values similar to that in the control medium during the first month of culture.

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Yin-Tung Wang

Bare-root, vegetatively propagated plants (average 15-cm leaf spread) of a white-flowered Phalaenopsis Taisuco Kochdian clone were imported in late May and planted either in a mix consisting of three parts medium-grade douglas fir bark and one part each of perlite and coarse canadian sphagnum peat (by volume) or in chilean sphagnum moss. All plants were given 200 mg·L−1 each of nitrogen and phosphorus, 100 mg·L−1 calcium, and 50 mg·L−1 magnesium at each irrigation with 0, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, or 500 mg·L−1 potassium (K). After 8 months, K concentration did not alter the number of new leaves on plants in either medium. Plants grown in moss produced four to five leaves, whereas those planted in the bark mix produced only two to three leaves. K concentration did not affect the length of the uppermost mature leaves when grown in the bark mix. However, in moss, plants had increasingly longer and wider top leaves as K concentration increased. The lower leaves on plants in the bark mix lacking or receiving 50 mg·L−1 K showed symptoms of yellowing, irregular purple spots, and necrosis after spiking and flowering, respectively. Yellowing and necrosis started from the leaf tip or margin and progressed basipetally. Symptoms became more severe during flower stem development and flowering. All of the plants lacking K were dead by the end of flowering. Leaf death originated from the lowest leaf and advanced to the upper leaves. K at 50 mg·L−1 greatly reduced and 100 mg·L−1 completely alleviated the symptoms of K deficiency at the time of flowering. However, by the end of flowering, plants receiving 50 or 100 mg·L−1 K had yellowing on one or two lower leaves. Plants grown in moss and lacking K showed limited signs of K deficiency. All plants in the bark mix bloomed, whereas none in sphagnum moss receiving 0 mg·L−1 K produced flowers. For both media, as K concentration increased, flower count and diameter increased. Flower stems on plants in either medium became longer and thicker with increasing K concentration. To obtain top-quality Phalaenopsis with the greatest leaf length, highest flower count, largest flowers, and longest inflorescences, it is recommended that 300 mg·L−1 K be applied under high N and high P conditions regardless of the medium.