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Barbara J. Daniels-Lake and Robert K. Prange

that the CO 2 concentration should be maintained below 1 kPa in potato storage atmospheres ( Rastovski, 1987 ; Schaper et al., 1993 ). The reported effects of elevated CO 2 on tuber fry color vary widely. Some researchers have demonstrated that 2 to

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Barbara J. Daniels-Lake, Robert K. Prange, Stephanie D. Bishop, and Kimberly Hiltz

chamber atmospheres by placing a paper sack containing ≈0.5 kg of hydrated lime [Ca(OH) 2 ; Graymont (QC) Inc., Boucherville, Quebec, Canada] inside the appropriate chambers. To simulate conditions in a poorly ventilated potato storage building, chambers

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Barbara Daniels-Lake, Robert Prange, and John Walsh

For many years, the accepted wisdom among potato storage researchers and industry personnel linked the accumulation of CO2 in the storage atmosphere to darkening of potato fry color. Dark fry color is undesirable in the potato processing industry, as consumers prefer light-colored finished products. Previous research to elucidate the effect of CO2 has presented conflicting results. In three consecutive years of storage trials, the effects of elevated CO2 concentrations, reduced O2 concentrations and ethylene gas on the fry color and sugar content of `Russet Burbank' potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers were evaluated. The potatoes were stored in modified atmosphere chambers and selected atmosphere mixtures were supplied from compressed gas cylinders. Four 3-week trials were conducted in 2002 and two 9-week trials were conducted in each of 2003 and 2004. Fry color and tuber sugars were assessed at the start of each trial and after several weeks of exposure to the treatment atmospheres. Compared with untreated controls, increased CO2 alone or in combination with decreased O2 had little or no effect on fry color or tuber sugars. During the second and third years, only selected treatments were repeated, with or without the addition of 0.5 μL·L–1 ethylene gas. Ethylene is known to affect potato fry color and reducing sugars. In three of four trials, tubers exposed to ethylene alone had darker fry color and higher reducing sugars compared with controls. Applied treatments had little or no effect on fry color and sugars in the fourth trial. Interestingly, in the same three of four trials, fry color of tubers exposed to both elevated CO2 and ethylene gas was not only darker than controls but also darker than tubers treated with ethylene alone. Similarly, reducing sugar concentrations were higher in tubers exposed to both ethylene and CO2 than with ethylene alone. No similar interaction between ethylene and oxygen concentration was observed. The results suggest a synergistic negative effect of trace ethylene and elevated CO2 on fry color, which may explain the apparently contradictory findings of some published research examining the effects of CO2 on potato fry color.

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Mildred N. Makani, Steven A. Sargent, Lincoln Zotarelli, Donald J. Huber, and Charles A. Sims

Early-maturing potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L.) grown in many subtropical and tropical regions are typically packed and shipped without curing. The objective of this study was to evaluate two early-maturing potato cultivars (‘Fabula’ and ‘Red LaSoda’) grown under four nitrogen fertilizer (NF) rates and harvested at three intervals after vine kill for effects on tuber physical and compositional quality at harvest and during storage. NF was applied through fertigation (0, 112, 224, or 336 kg·ha−1) and compared with granular NF application (224 kg·ha−1). The tubers were harvested weekly after vine kill (H1, H2, and H3) then evaluated for quality at 7 and 14 days during storage at 10 °C/80% to 85% relative humidity (RH). ‘Fabula’ tubers from H1 had the highest cumulative weight loss (3.6%) after 14 days of storage (season 1), while those from both H1 and H2 were highest (4.4%) in season 2, regardless of NF application method or rate. Tuber firmness increased by 1.5 newtons (N) for tubers from H1 after 7 days storage, and again by 0.76 N after 14 days for tubers from H2 and H3. Periderm dry matter content (DMC) for H1 tubers increased to 13.9% after 7 days, regardless of fertilizer treatment, in contrast to those from H2 or H3 where DMC remained constant throughout storage (10.6% and 11.4%, respectively). For ‘Red LaSoda’, cumulative weight loss in season 1 for H1 tubers was 2.2% after 14 days storage, whereas that for H2 and H3 tubers averaged 0.7%; this trend was similar for season 2. Periderm DMC significantly increased with increased storage time; that for H2 tubers was highest (19.6%) after 14 days. In both cultivars, tuber ascorbic acid content (AAC), soluble solids content (SSC), and total titratable acidity (TTA) remained constant throughout the 14-day storage period. Periderm maturity of ‘Fabula’ and ‘Red LaSoda’ potatoes had a greater effect on tuber physical and compositional quality during storage than the fertilizer rates or application methods. Fertigation at NF rates of 112, 224 or 336 kg·ha−1 was comparable with conventional granular NF application for growing high-quality tubers with acceptable postharvest life. Growing tubers at 112 kg·ha−1 nitrogen via fertigation has the potential to reduce both irrigation water usage and fertilizer runoff during the production cycle.

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Lim Hak-Tae and Choi Yu Mi

This study was conducted to find out the effect of sprouting inhibitors under different storage temperatures and reconditioning conditions on the processing quality of potato tubers produced in the alpine area of Korea. A higher sprouting ratio was observed in potatoes stored at 15°C than those at 5°C. In particular, 1% CIPC, was effective in the inhibition of sprouting, keeping the sprouted shoots in less than 2 mm, while rosette-shaped shoots, 12–17 mm, were observed in the CMH (100%) treatment. Atlantic was, in general, lower in reducing sugar contents compared to Superior. Reducing sugar contents in potatoes stored at 15°C were not increased, while potatoes stored at 5°C showed a 1% increase in reducing sugar contents for 180 days after storage. As far as chip color “L” value was concerned, no difference was detected among potato cultivars and sprout inhibitor treatments. Potato chip color was found to be the best from potatoes stored at 15°C for 180 days of storage. However, potatoes stored at 5°C gave rise to poor quality of potato chips with browning and bitter taste. Reconditioning had different effects on potato cultivars in that Atlantic potatoes produced more sprouts when they were reconditioned compared to the control of 15°C potato storage. In terms of the effect of reconditioning on reducing sugar contents, Atlantic sugar contents was reduced reconditioning went on. Sugar contents of Superior, however, was increased after undergoing the decrease for some time. Changes in potato chip color as influenced by reconditioning were in accordance with changes in reducing sugar. Atlantic was much better in chip color than Superior, showing a chip color “L” value of more than 50 in all treatments.

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Clive Kaiser, Philip B. Hamm, Stacy Gieck, Nicholas David, Lynn Long, Mekjell Meland, and J. Mark Christensen

. 1999 Application of organic and inorganic salts to field-grown potato tubers can suppress silver scurf during potato storage Plant Dis. 83 814 818 Palou, L. Usall, J. Smilanick, J.L. Aguilar, M.J. Vinas, I. 2002 Evaluation of food additives and low

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J. Harrison Ferebee IV, Charles W. Cahoon, Michael L. Flessner, David B. Langston, Ramon Arancibia, Thomas E. Hines, Hunter B. Blake, and M. Carter Askew

Amer. Potato J. 61 577 586 Nolte, P. Olsen, N. 2005 What is skin set and how do we achieve it? University of Idaho. 14 Sept. 2018. < https://www.uidaho.edu/-/media/UIdaho-Responsive/Files/cals/programs/potatoes/Storage

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David Douches, Walter Pett, Diedrich Visser, Joseph Coombs, Kelly Zarka, Kimberly Felcher, Gurling Bothma, Johan Brink, Muffy Koch, and Hector Quemada

Potato tuber moth is a serious pest of potato in South Africa. This insect causes damage during the growing season and in potato storage. The life cycle of potato tuber moth can be completed within 20 to 30 d and there may be as many as 12

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William B. Thompson, Jonathan R. Schultheis, Sushila Chaudhari, David W. Monks, Katherine M. Jennings, and Garry L. Grabow

tropics. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL Kemble, J.M. 2013 2013 Southeastern U.S. vegetable crop handbook. Vance Publ., Lincolnshire, IL Lewthwaite, S.L. Triggs, C.M. 2009 Preliminary study of the spatial distribution of sweet potato storage roots Agron. N.Z. 39

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Derek W. Barchenger, Danise L. Coon, and Paul W. Bosland

HortScience 48 738 741 Wang, X. Arancibia, R.A. Main, J.L. Shankle, M.W. LaBonte, D.R. 2013 Preharvest foliar application of ethephon increase skin lignin/suberin content and resistance to skinning in sweet potato storage roots HortScience 48 1270 1274 Weis, K