Transplants of `Ohio 8245' tomato grown in 48-cell plastic trays received 5 potassium chloride concentrations and were stressed by withholding water during the 6th week of growth. Gravimetric water loss differed between treatments with decreased water loss associated with increased potassium chloride concentration. As water was withheld, incidence of wilt was greater and more evident at an earlier stage with plants supplied with lowering KCL concentrations. Root and shoot dry weights, plant height and leaf area were not affected by treatments. This indicates an apparent increase in water use efficiency in tomato transplants supplied with KCL at greater concentrations than supplied under standard fertilizer regimes.
James D. Williams and D.W. Kretchman
Earl E. Albregts, George J. Hochnmth, Craig K. Chandler, John Cornell, and Jay Harrison
`Oso Grande' and `Sweet Charlie' strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) in 1991-92 and `Oso Grande' and `Seascape' in 1992-93 were grown in a K fertilization study using polyethylene-mulched and fumigated beds. Potassium was injected weekly into the drip irrigation system at 0.28,0.56,0.84, 1.12, and 1.40 kg K/ha per day. Early, March, and total-season marketable fruit yields were not affected by K rate during either season. The average fruit weight of `Oso Grande' for the early, March, and total-season harvest periods in the 1992-93 season decreased with increased K rate. For the same harvest periods, `Seascape' average fruit weight increased, decreased, and did not change, respectively, with increased K rate. Cull fruit yield during both seasons and fruit firmness during the 1992-93 season were not affected by K rate. Petiole sap, whole leaf, and leaf blade K concentrations increased with increasing K rates on most sampling dates during both seasons. `Oso Grande' and `Sweet Charlie' produced similar total marketable fruit yields the first season, but `Oso Grande' produced higher total yields than `Seascape' during all harvest periods of the second season.
S.J. Locascio, G.J. Hochmuth, S.M. Olson, R.C. Hochmuth, A.A. Csizinszky, and K.D. Shuler
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was grown with polyethylene mulch at five locations during a total of nine seasons to evaluate the effects of K source and K rate on fruit yield and leaf K concentration with drip and subsurface irrigation. K sources evaluated were KCl, K2SO4, and KNO3, and K rates varied from 0 to 400 kg·ha-1. Preplant soil K concentrations by Mehlich-1 extraction on the sandy soils and loamy sands used in the study varied from 12 mg·kg-1 (very low) to 60 mg·kg-1 (medium). In seven of the eight studies, K source did not significantly influence fruit yield or leaf K concentration. In the other study with subsurface irrigation at Bradenton in Spring 1992, marketable yields were significantly higher with KNO3 than with KCl as the K source. Tomato fruit yield responded to the application of K in all studies. At Gainesville, Quincy, and Live Oak, with drip irrigation on soils testing low to medium in K, maximum yields were produced with 75 to 150 kg·ha-1 K where the K was broadcast preplant. These rates were 25% to 30% higher than those predicted by soil test. At Bradenton and West Palm Beach on soils testing low to very low in K, where all or part of the K was applied in double bands on the bed shoulder with subsurface irrigation, yield responses were obtained to 225 to 300 kg·ha-1 K. These rates exceeded the maximum recommended K rate of 150 kg·ha-1. Tomato leaf tissue K concentrations increased linearly with increased rates of K application, but were not influenced by K source. These data suggest that the recommendation for K on soils testing low in K be increased from 150 to 210 kg·ha-1 and that this increase should suffice for tomatoes grown with either drip or subsurface irrigation.
Steven F. Berkheimer and Eric Hanson
Injury has been observed since the early to mid-1990s to highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) growing along roads in southern Michigan. Symptoms include shoot dieback, flower bud mortality, and reduced yields. To determine if this injury was the result of deicing salts applied to roads, salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) spray was applied to potted blueberry plants, and to the plant root zones. Bushes sprayed six times during the winter with NaCl solutions (0, 0.034, 0.068, 0.137, 0.274, 0.548 m) developed the same injury symptoms observed in roadside fields, and injury severity was proportional to the spray concentration. The root media of other potted plants was saturated with NaCl solutions (0, 0.017, 0.051, 0.154, and 0.462 m) in Mar. 2002. Pots were then rinsed with fresh well water when growth began in April to determine if soil salt caused similar damage. The highest soil salt levels killed most above ground growth, and damage diminished with decreasing salt levels. Twigs were also excised from branches sprayed twice with NaCl solutions or water and frozen incrementally to measure the temperature resulting in 50% flower bud mortality (LT50). Salt exposure reduced the LT50 of flower buds, by as much as 11.5 °C, relative to the control, even within 2 days of treatment. Additional studies with chloride salts (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2) and sodium salts (NaCl, Na-acetate, Na2SO4) indicated that most reduced the cold tolerance of blueberry flower buds to some degree.
Bielinski M. Santos
and use SOP (0N–0P–42K–17S), MOP (potassium chloride, 0N–0P–50K), and potassium nitrate (13N–0P–37K) as the most common K sources. However, MOP has a very elevated salt index (salt index = 116), mainly because of its high chloride content, in
Rizwan Maqbool, David Percival, Qamar Zaman, Tess Astatkie, Sina Adl, and Deborah Buszard
land was very stony and moderately rocky. The N was applied in the form of ammonium sulfate, except in the first production cycle (2000–01) where urea was used, P in the form of triple super phosphate, and K in the form of potassium chloride. The
Chandrappa Gangaiah, Amjad Ahmad, Hue V. Nguyen, Koon-Hui Wang, and Theodore J.K. Radovich
when was provided at 395 kg·ha −1 . Table 3. Effect of Eucheuma denticulatum algae and potassium nitrate on plant growth and tissue K from trial 2. Table 4. Effect of Kappaphycus alvarezii , potassium nitrate (KNO 3 ), and potassium chloride (KCl) on
Timothy K. Broschat
Release rates for 13 commercially available soluble and controlled-release K fertilizers were determined in sand columns at 21C. Potassium chloride, KMgSO4, and K2CO3 were leached completely from the columns within 3 or 4 weeks. Osmocote 0N-0P-38.3K, Multicote 9N-0P-26.7K, the two S-coated K2SO4 products, and Nutricote 2N-0P-30.8K Ty 180 all had similar release curves, with fairly rapid release during the first 20 to 24 weeks, slower release for the next 10 to 12 weeks, and virtually no K release thereafter.
Drew Bates, C.P. Hegwood Jr., and F.B. Matta
A field experiment was established in 1980 to determine the effect of different combined levels of ammonium nitrat e (196-695 kg/ha), potassium chloride (56-196 kg/ha) and magnesium oxide (123-437 kg/ha) on `Noble' and `Magnolia' muscadine cultivars (Vitis rotundifolia Mich.). NH4NO3 rates of 196 to 695 kg/ha did not produce significant differences in yields and pruning weights (P=0.05). 'Noble' produced similar yields at the highest and lowest N rates, with equivalent rates of K and Mg. KCl at 84 kg/ha and MgO at 123 kg/ha appeared to be adequate. Foliar levels of K, Mg and Zn were significantly different between treatments, but P, Ca and Fe were not (P=0.05). High levels of foliar K and Mg were associated with high treatment levels of K and Mg.
Carl Rosen, Wenshan Wang, and David Birong
A 2-year field study was conducted on a low- to medium-K testing sandy soil 1) to evaluate the effects of various K management strategies on potato (cv. Russet Burbank) yield and quality and 2) to calibrate a petiole sap test for determining plant K status. Treatments included banded applications of potassium chloride fertilizer at planting with K ranging from 0 to 300 kg·ha–1 in 75 kg·ha–1 increments. Comparisons of preplant broadcast + banded applications and evaluation of in-season applications of potassium nitrate also were made. In both years, tuber yield increased with increasing banded K fertilizer up to 150 kg ha-1 K the first year and 225 kg ha-1 K the second year. In-season applications of potassium nitrate increased tissue K levels, but at equivalent K application rates, timing of K application had no effect on yield. Petiole K concentrations, measured on a dry weight and sap basis, increased with increasing K fertilizer application. Potassium concentrations in nondiluted sap determined with the Cardy K electrode were ≈200 to 2500 ppm lower than those determined by flame emission. The greatest discrepancy occurred at the higher K sap concentrations. Potassium concentrations determined with the Cardy electrode in sap diluted with aluminum sulfate or deionized water were much closer to those determined by flame emission. These results suggest that dilution of the sap is necessary to obtain accurate K concentrations in petiole sap.