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Jan van Niekerk, Charl Kotze, Jade North and Paul Cronje

could have led to trial trees being stressed, which could have adversely affected results obtained. Treatments In the first season (2016), potassium phosphite [555 g·L −1 a.i. (350 g·L −1 phosphorous acid equivalent) (Fighter; Agchem, Pretoria, South

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Jiaming Yu, Timothy K. Broschat, William G. Latham and Monica L. Elliott

.i.) potassium phosphite, 60 mL (16.8 g a.i.) potassium phosphite, and 90 mL (25.2 g a.i.) potassium phosphite. All phosphite treatments were diluted 1:2 with DI. The commercial source of the potassium phosphite was StarPhite (Loveland Products Inc., Greeley, CO

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Guirong Zhang, Mohammad Babadoost, Alan De Young, Eric T. Johnson and David A. Schisler

.g., monopotassium and dipotassium salts of phosphorus acid, potassium phosphite, and azoxystrobin) have been used with varying levels of success managing downy mildew ( Gilardi et al., 2013 ; Homa et al., 2014 ; Patel et al., 2016 ; Pintore et al., 2016

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Carol J. Lovatt

The goal of this research was to identify the role essential nutrients play in the physiology of tree crops, and then to apply the nutrient as a foliar fertilizer to stimulate a specific metabolic process at phenological stages when nutrient demand is high. This approach has proven successful. A single winter prebloom foliar application of nitrogen as low-biuret urea [0.16 kg N/tree (0.35 lb N/tree)] to 30-year-old `Washington' navel orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) trees during flower initiation significantly increased yield and fruit number per tree for each of 3 consecutive years (P ≤ 0.05). The number of commercially valuable largesize fruit also increased significantly with yield increases (r 2 = 0.88). Sodium tetraborate applied foliarly to `Hass' avocado (Persea americana Mill.) trees at the cauliflower stage of inflorescence development (elongation of inflorescence secondary axes, pollen and ovule development) increased the number of pollen tubes reaching the ovule, ovule viability and cumulative yield (P ≤ 0.05). Additional examples are presented.

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Carol J. Lovatt

application of low-biuret urea or potassium phosphite (0.49 gal/acre, 0N–12.2P–21.6K) at maximum peel thickness, which marks the end of the cell division stage in citrus fruit development, significantly increased the yield of commercially valuable large fruit

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Kent E. Cushman, William B. Evans, David M. Ingram, Patrick D. Gerard, R. Allen Straw, Craig H. Canaday, Jim E. Wyatt and Michael M. Kenty

carbonate, potassium bicarbonate, or potassium phosphite reducing fruit tree diseases ( Reuveni et al., 2003 ). Potassium carbonate has been shown to reduce spore germination and kill germ tubes in apple scab ( Venturia inaequalis ) ( Schulze and Schönherr

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Johanna Del Castillo Múnera and Mary K. Hausbeck

potassium phosphite only gave barely significant benefit for geranium inoculated with P. irregulare , and no benefit for geranium inoculated with P. aphanidermatum or P. ultimum . Cyazofamid and fluopicolide did not limit disease significantly compared

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M. Taylor Perkins, Anna Claire Robinson, Martin L. Cipollini and J. Hill Craddock

; Jeffers et al., 2009 ). Unless symptoms are controlled with potassium phosphites or similar chemicals ( James, 2011a ), PRR will cause the death of susceptible plants 3 weeks to several years after the initial infection ( Crandall et al., 1945 ; Jeffers

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Drew C. Zwart and Soo-Hyung Kim

plain soil Soil Sci. 174 105 112 Parke, J.L. Lewis, C. 2007 Root and stem infection of Rhododendron from potting medium infested with Phytophthora ramorum Plant Dis. 91 1265 1270 Percival, G. Noviss, K. 2010 Evaluation of potassium phosphite and

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S. Laywisadkul, C.F. Scagel, L.H. Fuchigami and R.G. Linderman

.D. 1989 Phosphonate levels in avocado ( Persea americana ) seedlings and soil following treatment with fosetyl-Al or potassium phosphite Plant Dis. 73 212 215 Rickard, D.A. 2000 Review of phosphorous acid and its salts as fertilizer materials J. Plant Nutr