al., 1985 ; Ramakrishna et al., 2006 ; Ruidisch et al., 2013 ; Zhao et al., 2012 ). We believed that by using a novel method of placing low-density polyethylene mulch over the top of nonspaced (container-tight or pot-to-pot) containers during the
Shawn T. Steed, Allison Bechtloff, Andrew Koeser, and Tom Yeager
Jennifer L. Dwyer, N. Curtis Peterson, and G. Stanley Howell
The nursery industry continues to develop improved methods for successfully overwintering container-grown nursery stock. Experiments were conducted using several different species of woody ornamentals ranging from species known to be cold hardy to cold tender. Eighteen species were subjected to temperatures ranging from 20F to -20F and observed for post-stress performance and viability. Rates and timing of acclimation, mid-winter hardiness, and deacclimation of seven species were determined by examining the shoots for injury after subjecting them to controlled freezer conditions. The roots of the same seven species were exposed to three different overwintering systems: in a polyhouse, pot-to-pot above the ground, and pot-in-pot below the ground. Cold hardiness of root and shoot systems and the effects of warming temperatures on shoots were determined as well as the post-stress performance of each species. Results of this research will be presented.
R.C. Beeson Jr. and G.W. Knox
Volume of water captured in a container as a function of sprinkler type, spacing, plant type, and container size was measured for marketable-sized plants. Percent water captured was calculated and a model to predict this value derived. Percent water captured was inversely related to the leaf area contained in the cylinder over the container when containers were separated, and with total plant leaf area at a pot-to-pot spacing. This relationship was independent of leaf curvature (concave vs. convex). Canopy densities were less related to percent water captured than leaf areas. Irrigation application efficiencies separated by spacing ranged from 37% at a close spacing to 25% at a spacing of 7.6 cm between containers. Container spacing, canopy shedding, and possibly some canopy retention of water later lost by evaporation were determined to be the main factors associated with the low efficiencies. The results suggest that higher irrigation application efficiencies would be maintained only if plants were transplanted to larger containers before reaching maximum canopy size rather than spacing existing containers to achieve more room for canopy growth.
Royal D. Heins, Thomas F. Wallace Jr., and Susan S. Han
Chlorosis of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum) lower leaves causes significant economic loss. Lily plants growing in 15-cm pots were sprayed 30, 60, or 90 days after emergence or at 60 and 90 days after emergence with 25 to 100 ppm each of benzyladenine and GA4+7 from Promalin (Abbott Chemical Co.) and were grown pot-to-pot until flower. Chlorotic leaf count at flower decreased as Promalin concentration increased; plants sprayed at 60 days had the smallest chlorotic leaf count. Chlorotic leaves at flower varied from 28% for control plants to 10% for plants sprayed with 100 ppm at 60 days and from 36% to 17% 3 weeks later, respectively. The Promalin sprays promoted significant stem elongation, but differences in height at flower were only 2 cm. Plants sprayed with 100 ppm at 30 days averaged one deformed flower per plant; plants sprayed at 60 days and 60 and 90 days averaged 0.0 and 0.1 deformed flower per plant, respectively. Additional trials in which only the lower part of the plant was sprayed prevented any chlorotic leaves without any significant effect on final height or flower bud quality.
Elizabeth Will and James E. Faust
A model was developed that will calculate the maximum number of containers that can be placed in a specified area. There are basically three patterns of container placement. First, “square” placement involves placing pots in parallel rows in both directions so that any four pots form a square. The other two methods involve staggered patterns in which any three containers form a triangle. In the “long staggered” pattern, the long rows are parallel to the long dimension of the bench or floor space, while in the “short staggered” pattern, long rows are parallel to the short dimension of the bench. Comparisons of spacing patterns were made using a range of greenhouse/bench dimensions and container sizes. In most cases, a staggered arrangement allowed a significant increase in the number of containers fitting on a bench as compared to square placement. For example, when 6-inch pots are placed pot-to-pot in an 8 × 50-foot greenhouse section or bench, “short staggered” or “long staggered” arrangement of containers permitted 10.4% to 11.9% more containers over that allowed by a square pattern. In general, the larger the bench or greenhouse section, the greater the benefit of staggered spacing. The difference between short and long staggered was usually less than 3%, and depended on the specific space dimensions. This model can be easily entered into a spreadsheet for growers to perform their own calculations.
James E. Faust, Elizabeth Will, Xian Duan, and Effin T. Graham
Poinsettia stem breakage reduces plant quality and marketability. The cultivar `Freedom' is susceptible to stem breakage; however, the severity of stem breakage varies with crop and year. The following four experiments were conducted to determine the factors that influence stem breakage of `Freedom' poinsettias: 1) Cutting Stem Diameter. Cuttings were graded by stem diameter into small (5.0–5.4 mm), medium (6.0–6.7 mm), and large (7.3–8.3 mm) cuttings. 2) Premature Lateral Shoot Development.Small (1- to 3-cm-long) leaves near the shoot tip of the rooted cuttings were excised to remove the lateral shoots from apical dominance prior to pinching, thus causing the lateral shoots to develop prematurely. 3) Container Spacing. The control group was spaced to 35.6 × 35.6 cm at the time of pinching. The plants in one treatment were spaced to 23.1 × 23.1 cm 25 days after pinching, and then spaced to 35.6 × 35.6 cm 11 days later. The plants in a second treatment were grown pot-to-pot for 36 days after pinch, at which time they were spaced to 35.6 × 35.6 cm. 4) Node Number. Plants were pinched to eight nodes, while the control group was pinched to 5 nodes. Tissue development in the stem crotch; i.e., the area of lateral stem attachment to the main stem, was observed by microscopic examination of paraffin-embedded samples from each experiment every 2 weeks until anthesis. Lateral shoot strength was quantified by hanging a plastic beaker from the lateral stem and gradually adding water until stem crotch failure occurred. We observed that stem strength increased as cutting stem diameter increased. Plants pinched to eight nodes produced weaker lateral shoots than those pinched to five nodes. Premature lateral shoot development and container spacing did not affect stem strength.
or white plastic mulch over the surface of non-spaced (pot-to-pot), #1 containers. Japanese privet was planted through punched holes and grown for 22 weeks with standard overhead irrigation. Black and white plastic mulch reduced irrigation by 82% and
Cheryl R. Boyer, Janet C. Cole, and Mark E. Payton
some overwinter under fabric or with plants placed pot to pot ( Table 6 ). No nursery used mulch for overwinter protection. Table 6. Methods of overwintering wintercreeper euonymus in U.S. nurseries with or without anthracnose. Nurseries were asked what
Zhanao Deng and Natalia A. Peres
months) at 4.3 kg·m −3 ; plants were grown in a greenhouse with ≈30% light exclusion. Temperatures in the greenhouse ranged from 25 °C (night) to 33 °C (day). Potted plants were arranged on metal benches, with a pot-to-pot spacing of 0.4 m, in the
William B. Miller
all experiments, 9 corms were used per 15-cm pot, with 6 replications (pots) per treatment. Plants were initially grown pot-to-pot; then, they were spaced on 25-cm centers when the foliage was ≈15 cm tall. Each experiment was conducted as a completely